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Margaret Mead December 16, — November 15, was an American cultural anthropologist who featured frequently as an author and speaker in the mass media during the s and s.
Margaret Mead was an American anthropologist best known for her studies of the peoples of Oceania. Margaret Mead wrote more than 20 books. She graduated from Barnard in and entered the graduate school of Columbia University , where she studied with and was greatly influenced by anthropologists Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict a lifelong friend.
Margaret Mead December 16, — November 15, was an American cultural anthropologist who featured frequently as an author and speaker in the mass media during the s and s.
Mead was a communicator of anthropology in modern American and Western culture and was often controversial as an academic. Margaret Mead, the first of five children, was born in Philadelphia , but raised in nearby Doylestown, Pennsylvania. This was a traumatic event for Mead, who had named the girl, and thoughts of her lost sister permeated her daydreams for many years.
Mead earned her bachelor's degree from Barnard in , then began studying with professor Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict at Columbia University , earning her master's degree in Before departing for Samoa, Mead had a short affair with the linguist Edward Sapir , a close friend of her instructor Ruth Benedict.
But Sapir's conservative ideas about marriage and the woman's role were unacceptable to Mead, and as Mead left to do field work in Samoa the two separated permanently. Mead received news of Sapir's remarriage while living in Samoa, where, on a beach, she later burned their correspondence. Mead was married three times.
After a six-year engagement,  she married her first husband — American Luther Cressman , a theology student at the time who eventually became an anthropologist. Between and she was in Samoa returning wherefrom on the boat she met Reo Fortune , a New Zealander headed to Cambridge, England, to study psychology.
Mead dismissively characterized her union with her first husband as "my student marriage" in her autobiography Blackberry Winter , a sobriquet with which Cressman took vigorous issue.
Mead's third and longest-lasting marriage — was to the British anthropologist Gregory Bateson , with whom she had a daughter, Mary Catherine Bateson , who would also become an anthropologist. Mead's pediatrician was Benjamin Spock ,  whose subsequent writings on child rearing incorporated some of Mead's own practices and beliefs acquired from her ethnological field observations which she shared with him; in particular, breastfeeding on the baby's demand rather than a schedule.
She was devastated when he left her, and she remained his loving friend ever after, keeping his photograph by her bedside wherever she traveled, including beside her hospital deathbed. Mead also had an exceptionally close relationship with Ruth Benedict , one of her instructors. In her memoir about her parents, With a Daughter's Eye , Mary Catherine Bateson implies that the relationship between Benedict and Mead was partly sexual.
In her writings, she proposed that it is to be expected that an individual's sexual orientation may evolve throughout life. She spent her last years in a close personal and professional collaboration with anthropologist Rhoda Metraux , with whom she lived from until her death in Letters between the two published in with the permission of Mead's daughter  clearly express a romantic relationship.
Mead had two sisters and a brother, Elizabeth, Priscilla, and Richard. Elizabeth Mead — , an artist and teacher, married cartoonist William Steig , and Priscilla Mead — married author Leo Rosten. Mead was also the aunt of Jeremy Steig. She was curator of ethnology at the American Museum of Natural History from to Following Ruth Benedict's example, Mead focused her research on problems of child rearing, personality, and culture.
In the mids, Mead joined forces with communications theorist Rudolf Modley , jointly establishing an organization called Glyphs Inc. Mead was featured on two record albums published by Folkways Records. The first, released in , An Interview With Margaret Mead, explored the topics of morals and anthropology.
In , she was included in a compilation of talks by prominent women, But the Women Rose, Vol. She is credited with the term " semiotics ", making it a noun.
In later life, Mead was a mentor to many young anthropologists and sociologists, including Jean Houston. Courtesy, modesty, good manners, conformity to definite ethical standards are universal, but what constitutes courtesy, modesty, very good manners, and definite ethical standards is not universal.
It is instructive to know that standards differ in the most unexpected ways. Mead's findings suggested that the community ignores both boys and girls until they are about 15 or Before then, children have no social standing within the community. Mead also found that marriage is regarded as a social and economic arrangement where wealth, rank, and job skills of the husband and wife are taken into consideration.
In , National Educational Television produced a documentary in commemoration of the 40th anniversary of Dr. Margaret Mead's first expedition to New Guinea.
Through the eyes of Dr. Mead on this her final visit to the village of Peri, the film records how the role of the anthropologist has changed in the forty years since In his obituary in The New York Times , John Shaw stated that his thesis, though upsetting many, had by the time of his death generally gained widespread acceptance.
There is now a large body of criticism of Freeman's work from a number of perspectives in which Mead, Samoa, and anthropology appear in a very different light than they do in Freeman's work. Indeed, the immense significance that Freeman gave his critique looks like 'much ado about nothing' to many of his critics. While nurture-oriented anthropologists are more inclined to agree with Mead's conclusions, there are other non-anthropologists who take a nature-oriented approach following Freeman's lead, among them Harvard psychologist Steven Pinker , biologist Richard Dawkins , evolutionary psychologist David Buss , science writer Matt Ridley and classicist Mary Lefkowitz.
In , author Martin Orans examined Mead's notes preserved at the Library of Congress, and credits her for leaving all of her recorded data available to the general public. Orans point out that Freeman's basic criticisms, that Mead was duped by ceremonial virgin Fa'apua'a Fa'amu who later swore to Freeman that she had played a joke on Mead were equivocal for several reasons: first, Mead was well aware of the forms and frequency of Samoan joking; second, she provided a careful account of the sexual restrictions on ceremonial virgins that corresponds to Fa'apua'a Fa'auma'a's account to Freeman, and third, that Mead's notes make clear that she had reached her conclusions about Samoan sexuality before meeting Fa'apua'a Fa'amu.
Orans points out that Mead's data support several different conclusions, and that Mead's conclusions hinge on an interpretive, rather than positivist, approach to culture. Orans goes on to point out, concerning Mead's work elsewhere, that her own notes do not support her published conclusive claims.
However, there are still those who claim Mead was hoaxed, including Peter Singer and zoologist David Attenborough. The Intercollegiate Review  , published by the Intercollegiate Studies Institute which promotes conservative thought on college campuses,   listed the book as No.
The lack of male dominance may have been the result of the Australian administration's outlawing of warfare. According to contemporary research, males are dominant throughout Melanesia although some believe that female witches have special powers [ citation needed ]. Others have argued that there is still much cultural variation throughout Melanesia, and especially in the large island of New Guinea.
Moreover, anthropologists often overlook the significance of networks of political influence among females. The formal male-dominated institutions typical of some areas of high population density were not, for example, present in the same way in Oksapmin, West Sepik Province, a more sparsely populated area. Cultural patterns there were different from, say, Mt. They were closer to those described by Mead. Mead stated that the Arapesh people , also in the Sepik, were pacifists , although she noted that they do on occasion engage in warfare.
Her observations about the sharing of garden plots among the Arapesh, the egalitarian emphasis in child rearing, and her documentation of predominantly peaceful relations among relatives are very different from the "big man" displays of dominance that were documented in more stratified New Guinea cultures—e.
They are a different cultural pattern. Deborah Gewertz studied the Chambri called Tchambuli by Mead in — and found no evidence of such gender roles. Gewertz states that as far back in history as there is evidence s Chambri men dominated the women, controlled their produce and made all important political decisions. In later years there has been a diligent search for societies in which women dominate men, or for signs of such past societies, but none have been found Bamberger, Bernard argues that while Mead claimed the Mundugumor women were temperamentally identical to men, her reports indicate that there were in fact sex differences; Mundugumor women hazed each other less than men hazed each other, they made efforts to make themselves physically desirable to others, married women had fewer affairs than married men, women were not taught to use weapons, women were used less as hostages and Mundugumor men engaged in physical fights more often than women.
Conversely, the Arapesh were also described as equal in temperament, yet Bernard states that Mead's own writings indicate that men physically fought over women, yet women did not fight over men. The Arapesh also seemed to have some conception of sex differences in temperament, as they would sometimes describe a woman as acting like a particularly quarrelsome man.
Bernard also questioned if the behaviour of men and women in these societies differed as much from Western behaviour as Mead claimed it did, arguing that some of her descriptions could be equally descriptive of a Western context.
Despite its feminist roots, Mead's work on women and men was also criticized by Betty Friedan on the basis that it contributes to infantilizing women.
In , there was much debate about race and intelligence. Mead felt the methodologies involved in the experimental psychology research supporting arguments of racial superiority in intelligence were substantially flawed. In "The Methodology of Racial Testing: Its Significance for Sociology" Mead proposes that there are three problems with testing for racial differences in intelligence.
First, there are concerns with the ability to validly equate one's test score with what Mead refers to as racial admixture or how much Negro or Indian blood an individual possesses. She also considers whether this information is relevant when interpreting IQ scores.
Mead remarks that a genealogical method could be considered valid if it could be "subjected to extensive verification". In addition, the experiment would need a steady control group to establish whether racial admixture was actually affecting intelligence scores. Next, Mead argues that it is difficult to measure the effect that social status has on the results of a person's intelligence test.
By this she meant that environment i. Lastly, Mead adds that language barriers sometimes create the biggest problem of all. Similarly, Stephen J.
Gould finds three main problems with intelligence testing, in his book The Mismeasure of Man , that relate to Mead's view of the problem of determining whether there are racial differences in intelligence. She amply describes her stay there in her autobiography and it is mentioned in her biography by Jane Howard. On Manus she studied the Manus people of the south coast village of Peri. Mead has been credited with persuading the American Jewish Committee to sponsor a project to study European Jewish villages, shtetls , in which a team of researchers would conduct mass interviews with Jewish immigrants living in New York City.
The resulting book, widely cited for decades, allegedly created the Jewish mother stereotype , a mother intensely loving but controlling to the point of smothering, and engendering guilt in her children through the suffering she professed to undertake for their sakes. After her death, Mead's Samoan research was criticized by anthropologist Derek Freeman , who published a book that argued against many of Mead's conclusions. Freeman argued instead that Samoan culture prized female chastity and virginity and that Mead had been misled by her female Samoan informants.
Freeman's critique was met with a considerable backlash and harsh criticism from the anthropology community, whereas it was received enthusiastically by communities of scientists who believed that sexual mores were more or less universal across cultures. She said that she and her friends were having fun with Mead and telling her stories. On the whole, anthropologists have rejected the notion that Mead's conclusions rested on the validity of a single interview with a single person, finding instead that Mead based her conclusions on the sum of her observations and interviews during her time in Samoa, and that the status of the single interview did not falsify her work.
In her book Galileo's Middle Finger , Alice Dreger argues that Freeman's accusations were unfounded and misleading. A detailed review of the controversy by Paul Shankman, published by the University of Wisconsin Press in , supports the contention that Mead's research was essentially correct, and concludes that Freeman cherry-picked his data and misrepresented both Mead and Samoan culture.
UN Ambassador Andrew Young presented the award to Mead's daughter at a special program honoring Mead's contributions, sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History, where she spent many years of her career. The citation read: . Margaret Mead was both a student of civilization and an exemplar of it.
To a public of millions, she brought the central insight of cultural anthropology: that varying cultural patterns express an underlying human unity. She mastered her discipline, but she also transcended it.
Intrepid, independent, plain spoken, fearless, she remains a model for the young and a teacher from whom all may learn. In , the Supersisters trading card set was produced and distributed; one of the cards featured Mead's name and picture.
In the musical Hair , her name is given to a tranvestite 'tourist' disturbing the show with the song 'My Conviction'.
Margaret Mead and the Ambiguities of Sexual Citizenship for Women
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Author of more than fifteen hundred books, articles, films, anct occasional pieces; a tireless public speaker traveling the world to instruct ancl persuade; a field re- searcher of extraordinarily extensive and varied experience; a hyperactive organizer of projects, conferences, programs, and careers; and possessed of a seemingly endless fund of opinions on every subject under the sun that she was all too willing to share with anyone who asked, and many who clic! Even cleath, which came from pancreatic cancer in the winter of S, a month shy of her seventy-seventh birthday, clid not still the debates that circulatect about her person anct her work.
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Cultural anthropologist and writer Margaret Meade was born in Philadelphia and graduated from Barnard College in Appointed assistant curator of ethnology at the American Museum of Natural History in , she embarked on two dozen trips to the South Pacific to study primitive cultures. In her resulting books such as Coming of Age in Samoa , Mead formulated her ideas about the powerful effects of social convention on behavior, particularly in adolescent girls. Named a professor of anthropology at Columbia University in , Mead continued to advocate for the relaxation of traditional gender and sexual conventions through her lecturing and writing. Mead, who turned the study of primitive cultures into a vehicle for criticizing her own, was born in Philadelphia on December 16,
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Salida! - крикнул Беккер. - Salida. Выпустите. Кардинал Хуэрра послушно кивнул. Дьявол ворвался в святилище в поисках выхода из Божьего дома, так пусть он уйдет, и как можно скорее. Тем более что проник он сюда в самый неподходящий момент.
Он аккуратно размазал приправу кончиком салфетки. - Что за отчет.