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- New UN report outlines ways to curb growing spread of animal-to-human diseases
- Africa’s growing risk of diseases that spread from animals to people
- Africa’s growing risk of diseases that spread from animals to people
- Zoonoses and One Health: A Review of the Literature
Animal health jobs in ethiopia. Home About My account Contact Us. Where data are available, attribute diseases to the health loss envelope Outcomes1.
New UN report outlines ways to curb growing spread of animal-to-human diseases
The outbreak of COVID is a rude awakening to many who believed the era of infectious disease was over. But in the last half of the last century, with the widespread use of antibiotics and vaccines, many had begun to believe that the era of infectious disease was ending. The story of epidemics , however, is always evolving. Over the last years, in fact, there has been growing evidence of not less but more frequent emergence and greater spread of zoonotic pathogens in humans and animals.
In recent decades, most of these zoonotic pathogens originated on the western seaboards of Europe and the United States. More recently still, Asia, Africa, and South America appear to be growing in importance as origins of zoonotic pathogens.
A major cause of the emergence of new influenzas is the increasing densities of people and their domestic animals. Greater human populations are also increasing human interactions with wild animals, which is speeding the acquisition of disease infections among people. Africa is now catching up to Asia as an infectious disease hotspot. Africa now has the fastest-growing and youngest human population of any region in the world.
In , Africa south of the Sahara had around million inhabitants ; the population now stands at 1 billion and by is projected to grow to around 4 billion people. With increasing human populations and increasing demand for milk, meat and eggs due to rising urbanization and incomes, the densities of humans and domestic animals are also increasing—particularly in coastal West Africa and North Africa and the highlands of East Africa. Figure 1 compares the current human, poultry, pig, and ruminant populations across Africa and Asia.
Regions of Africa are now approaching the high-density levels seen in Asia. In past centuries in Africa, animal pathogens jumping to humans almost always caused limited outbreaks—reflecting the comparatively low densities of people and animals and their relative isolation. However, this pattern is changing, with increases in both frequency of emergence and expanded spread in human populations. Here, we highlight key changes in human, animal, and environmental health drivers contributing to more frequent emergence and greater spread of emerging zoonoses in Africa, now and in the future.
Understanding these changes is critical in developing preventive and rapid response strategies and capacities to mitigate the increasing risk of epidemics of emerging diseases in Africa.
Regions that have high human populations in Africa include East and West Africa; in Asia, relatively high human populations occur in southeast China and India. In general, areas with high human populations also have high poultry and other livestock populations. Tracing pathogen emergence from one host species to another has been greatly aided by the advent of genomic tools and improved but still limited sampling of the host species.
Zoonotic pathogens can directly jump from an animal species to infect humans HIV-AIDS from primates or through other animal species which either act as an intermediate connector host, or bridge, SARS-Coronavirus and SARS-Coronavirus 2 that causes COVID, from bats through wildlife species then to humans or as amplifier hosts of pathogens transmitted to humans Nipah virus from bats, multiplied in pigs; influenza viruses mixing between human, pig, and poultry populations in East and Southeast Asia.
While many new diseases originate in wildlife, for some of the most serious, livestock has been a connector or amplifier host. Prevention or failing that, rapid initial containment before the exponential growth of cases is the health goal.
But the dramatic social, demographic, and health changes of late 19th century Africa helped to transform these occasional pathogenic wildlife-human spillovers into pandemics of human-to-human disease transmission, such as the human immunodeficiency virus HIV.
Source: Authors' notes. What might change regarding the frequency of pathogen emergence in primary animal hosts and subsequent transmission to humans and domestic animals.
This zoonotic pathogen and human disease pattern continues to evolve and change. As in Asia, increasing changes in land use , including the expansion of human settlements and agricultural lands, are increasing contacts between humans and wild animal host species. That human disease outbreaks of yellow fever and other hemorrhagic fevers are associated with exposure to new pathogens through human incursions into forests has been well known for two centuries. But the routine exploitation of forests for mining and other resource extraction purposes in recent decades has created new opportunities for viral transmission.
Rising human populations in parts of Africa are accelerating the use of forests for hunting bushmeat for consumption and use in traditional medicines and trade. Like China, wet markets for bushmeat are also found in Africa and there is a considerable illegal international trade. Closer interfaces between dense human settlements and forests continue to expand.
Many wildlife species—most worryingly, from a pathogen emergence perspective, bats—are increasingly adapting to peri-urban living. Accra, the capital of Ghana, is home to more than one million fruit bats and hunting and sales are important economic activities. One critical question is whether bat pathogens, including a range of bat coronaviruses, are also evolving to become more adapted to multiple animal hosts, including humans.
Analyses of bat coronaviruses , including SARS-Cov-2 , indicate that they may more easily mutate to infect humans than in the past. What might change in the frequency of zoonotic pathogen emergence and spread from intermediate or amplifier animal species. For some emerging zoonoses, the spread of infections in domestic animal species is the key factor. For both Nipah and MERS the latter caused by a coronavirus , the spread from bats to intermediate domestic animal hosts was important in the subsequent emergence of the disease in humans.
Influenza viruses have been responsible for many epidemics over the past centuries, including the flu pandemic of — that killed more people than any other documented pandemic—one-third of the world was infected and around 50 million people died. Interestingly, in the H5N1 avian flu epidemic of — that caused global animal and human health concerns, H5N1 infections became endemic in Indonesia but were relatively quickly eliminated following their introduction in West Africa, perhaps because Indonesia at that time had much greater poultry densities than West Africa.
But West African poultry density is now catching up to Asia. What is changing in human societies that facilitates the spread of emerging zoonotic pathogens.
Increasing human populations, urbanization, and rising incomes are changing Africa in fundamental ways. One major change is a dramatic increase in air travel between Africa and the rest of the world. While traditionally most African travel connections have been through Europe or the Middle East, in the past decade the number of African connections to Asia has been rising.
Relative to COVID, Marius Gilbert and colleagues combined data on Chinese air travel connections with available indices on health preparedness and infectious disease vulnerability indices to rank country risk. As noted above, Ebola outbreaks in Africa have usually been contained locally; the West Africa Ebola epidemic spread through countries with very weak health systems. In , an Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo persisted as it occurred in a conflict zone.
Implications and opportunities for controlling emerging infectious diseases in Africa. The rising risk of emergence and spread of zoonoses in Africa has significant consequences for the continent and the rest of the world. Epidemics in recent decades have varied in both their causes and effects and there are no common guidelines for the prevention or early control of zoonotic diseases. Governments and organizations should also adopt a coordinated One Health response across human, animal and environmental health.
Bringing these three disciplines together is essential to respond to the increasing threat of emerging zoonoses in Africa. The record thus far on COVID and on past disease outbreaks shows that early, effective, and sustained response is essential to winning the battle over these diseases. Innovative use of information and communication tools and platforms and engagement of local communities are crucial to improved disease surveillance and effective response.
Building these systems requires demand from the public commitment from policymakers and investors. COVID is a game-changer. It has shocked the world and continues to disrupt the daily lives of billions of people. Its eventual impacts on Africa are not yet apparent but may be enormous. But it will also provide important lessons in disease prevention and early response, the kind of lessons routinely ignored in the past, and point the way to combining effective disease-fighting practices linking human, animal and environmental health.
The analysis and opinions expressed in this piece are solely those of the authors. Skip to main content. This blog post is part of a special series of analyses on the impacts of the COVID pandemic on national and global food and nutrition security, poverty, and development. See the full series here. What might change regarding the frequency of pathogen emergence in primary animal hosts and subsequent transmission to humans and domestic animals This zoonotic pathogen and human disease pattern continues to evolve and change.
What might change in the frequency of zoonotic pathogen emergence and spread from intermediate or amplifier animal species For some emerging zoonoses, the spread of infections in domestic animal species is the key factor. What is changing in human societies that facilitates the spread of emerging zoonotic pathogens Increasing human populations, urbanization, and rising incomes are changing Africa in fundamental ways.
Implications and opportunities for controlling emerging infectious diseases in Africa The rising risk of emergence and spread of zoonoses in Africa has significant consequences for the continent and the rest of the world.
Africa’s growing risk of diseases that spread from animals to people
The outbreak of COVID is a rude awakening to many who believed the era of infectious disease was over. But in the last half of the last century, with the widespread use of antibiotics and vaccines, many had begun to believe that the era of infectious disease was ending. The story of epidemics , however, is always evolving. Over the last years, in fact, there has been growing evidence of not less but more frequent emergence and greater spread of zoonotic pathogens in humans and animals. In recent decades, most of these zoonotic pathogens originated on the western seaboards of Europe and the United States. More recently still, Asia, Africa, and South America appear to be growing in importance as origins of zoonotic pathogens. A major cause of the emergence of new influenzas is the increasing densities of people and their domestic animals.
The system can't perform the operation now. Try again later. Citations per year. Duplicate citations. The following articles are merged in Scholar. Their combined citations are counted only for the first article.
Africa’s growing risk of diseases that spread from animals to people
As the battle against COVID rages, the world can expect to see other diseases that pass from animals to humans emerge, according to a new UN report launched on Monday, which maintains that there is still time to head off potential zoonotic pandemics. Excluding the spiraling cost of the coronavirus pandemic that has so far claimed more than , lives — every year some two million individuals, mostly in low- and middle-income countries, die from neglected zoonotic diseases. While zoonotic diseases are on the rise worldwide, Africa has the potential to leverage its experience to tackle future outbreaks through approaches that incorporate human, animal and environmental health, according to the report.
Satesh Bidaisee, Calum N. One health is a concept that was officially adopted by international organizations and scholarly bodies in It is the notion of combining human, animal, and environmental components to address global health challenges that have an ecological interconnectedness.
Zoonoses and One Health: A Review of the Literature
As the global food supply continues to integrate and develop, there is a great need to understand the role of foodborne hazards and food safety systems in global food system development. Food safety systems must be considered as more than an enabling environment for agriculture value-chain development, and should receive targeted investments as a key element of global agriculture development. Global food safety systems contribute to global agriculture value-chain development, and can lead to improvements in agriculture productivity, economic growth, and public health around the world. As global food systems integrate, to meet the demands of a growing global population, safe and healthy agriculture value-chains will be essential to maintaining public health worldwide.
Bovine tuberculosis bTB is endemic in Ethiopia with higher prevalence in cattle, particularly in the central parts. Spread of Mycobacterium bovis M. This study was conducted to explore the pathology, characterize M. Samples from tissues with visible tuberculous or suspected non-visible lesions were processed and cultured following a standard protocol. Isolates identified as M.
Gender inequalities and zoonoses are major concerns in livestock production systems worldwide. Livestock producers are at high risk of zoonotic diseases due to direct and indirect contact with their livestock and livestock products. Gender differences and inequalities in roles, access to and control over resources, decision-making, and cultural norms influence exposure to, perceptions, and management practices for zoonotic disease risks. Using participatory action research, we tested the effectiveness of community conversations in changing gender relations and practices that expose livestock keepers to zoonoses in three districts of rural Ethiopia. Our findings show that community conversations change mindsets and practices regarding gender roles, access to and control over resources, decision-making in households, handling livestock, and consumption of animal-source foods. This has practical and policy implications for interventions that aim to change behavior. The process requires nurturing collaborative relations, trust-building, community-driven social learning, enhancing local capacities, breaking belief traps, and complementarity to existing interventions.
PDF | Background Ethiopia has the second largest human population on zoonotic diseases, and common animal-source food handling and.
Food safety is a significant barrier to social and economic development throughout the world, particularly in developing countries. Here, we reviewed the prevalence of major bacterial foodborne pathogens Salmonella spp. We identified 15, 9, 5 and 0 studies that had reported the prevalence of Salmonella spp. The studies reviewed reported a median prevalence of Salmonella, L. Implementation of good hygiene and production practices and assessment of interventions targeting the reduction of contamination in the dairy supply chain is needed to inform coordinated efforts focused on improvement of dairy food safety in Ethiopia. Food safety is a significant barrier to the socio-economic development of nations across the globe.
Сэр, как вы знаете, всякий, кто хочет проникнуть в банк данных извне, должен пройти несколько уровней защиты. Фонтейн кивнул. Иерархия допуска в банк данных была тщательно регламентирована; лица с допуском могли войти через Интернет. В зависимости от уровня допуска они попадали в те отсеки банка данных, которые соответствовали сфере их деятельности. - Поскольку мы связаны с Интернетом, - объяснял Джабба, - хакеры, иностранные правительства и акулы Фонда электронных границ кружат вокруг банка данных двадцать четыре часа в сутки, пытаясь проникнуть внутрь. - Да, - сказал Фонтейн, - и двадцать четыре часа в сутки наши фильтры безопасности их туда не пускают. Так что вы хотите сказать.
Веревка даже не была как следует натянута.
Расскажите, как он погиб, - нетерпеливо сказал Фонтейн. Смит сообщил: - Мы вели наблюдение из мини-автобуса с расстояния метров в пятьдесят. Вначале все шло гладко. Халохот, по всей видимости, настоящий профессионал. Но потом появилась группа людей, и Халохот не смог завладеть искомым предметом.