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C urrent scholarly work on careers depicts the new world of careers as boundaryless, turbulent, and dynamic. However, there is is much rhetoric and little substantive evidence to back up these ideas. Empirical evidence to that effect is quite thin, and this books bridges the gap, as well as offers an inspirational new perspective. Why should your students and you read this book? Because it is an eye-opener. It provides a real life, thorough study of the true meaning of boundaryless careers.
It has the benefit of rigorous academic study five-year, multi-method study of 3, individuals , coupled with clear and well developed ideas and framework.
Students can use the book for rediscovering a career path that may fit them better. Employers should be aware of it in order to avoid loosing their best performers. What does the book tell us, and in what way it is unique?
A "Kaleidoscope Career" is created and evolved on the individual's own terms, defined by the individual's own values, life choices, and parameters, rather than by the corporation. As an individual's life changes, his or her career pattern may alter to adjust to these changes rather than relinquishing control and allowing a corporation to dictate time and energy demands imposed by work.
People amend, modify, and adjust the kaleidoscope the patterns of their careers by rotating the varied aspects of their lives in order to arrange their relationships and roles in new ways.
Consider the workings of a kaleidoscope: as one part moves, the other parts invariably change. Like a kaleidoscope that produces changing patterns when the tube is rotated and its glass chips fall into new arrangements, workers shift the pattern of their careers by rotating different aspects of their lives to arrange their roles and relationships in new ways. They evaluate the choices and options available through the lens of the kaleidoscope to determine the best fit among their many relationships, work constraints, and opportunities.
Once a decision is made, it affects the outcome of the Kaleidoscope Career Pattern. According to the model, individuals strive for challenging work that permits career advancement and enhances self worth. They also have a need for balance in terms of work, relationships, and personal concerns.
Additionally, individuals are on a personal quest for authenticity, defined as being genuine and allowing personal and work behaviors to be congruent with personal values.
In addition to these three dimensions, Mainiero and Sullivan found distinct gender and generational differences in how careers are enacted. Men tend to have more of the Alpha type, which follows the priority sequence of Challenge, Authenticity, and Balance. Although not a major difference, it fits well with the expectations of career scholars. Women's careers tended to be more relational than men's careers; each decision and action a woman takes is evaluated in terms of the lasting impact it will have on others around her.
Women's careers tended to be more discontinuous and characterized by interruptions and time-outs, often because of childcare or eldercare demands. While women tended to have non-traditional, nonlinear, discontinuous career patterns, men tended to have a more linear, traditional career patterns. Older men, including those in dual-career marriages, had more uninterrupted career patterns focused on achievement. Despite recent conceptualizations that suggest that people, in general, are moving toward more non-traditional, multidirectional careers, most men studied had linear career paths.
The book reminds us that there is no single way to achieve career success. People who look beyond the corporate ladder, and especially those who might feel trapped in the corporate world, should read it to figure out that there is an alternative. Being academic scholars, Mainiero and Sullivan not only provide the reader a with clear manifestation of the relevant career theory and research, but go beyond to explore an intriguing phenomenon: Why women and men, too exit corporations and create careers on their own terms.
This perhaps represents one weakness of the book and the model-instead of being an overarching model, it is presented primarily as a female oriented model. It would make more sense to make it a non-gender issue right from the start. Despite this criticism, their thorough academic studies collated in this book reveal much more than we know so far. The book clearly shows that people are not leaving work altogether, but rather are looking for a new path, one that often revolts against the corporate system that fails to meet their needs for authenticity, balance, and challenge.
Both men and women encounter similar issues, we learn, but approach them in much different ways. How can this book be used for master level teaching in management MBA and beyond? Reading the book as an assignment can spark a lively class discussion about which way their own careers are moving. Students may be asked to identify several people they know and classify them according to their career pattern.
Students can share personal career stories to support or contradict the idea of Kaleidoscope Career. The concept of Kaleidoscope Careers can be instrumental also for consultancy, at both the individual level as a self-reflection analysis for people reconsidering their future career, and at the organizational level, for HRM professionals that need to retain current talent and make sense of careers in their own organizations.
In all, this book promises a lot, and delivers it in a very engaging way. O ne of the great curiosities of our field is the disjunction between what we study and what the world does. Organizations spend a great deal of their resources choosing executives with the "right" career backgrounds and developing them by giving them the "right" experience; yet we know surprisingly little about the impact that backgrounds have on the way people manage.
It is not difficult to understand why this might be: studying the relationship between background and managerial behavior is very difficult. Mostly, researchers duck the issue, or at best work from secondary sources that yield results that are rarely unambiguous and usually raise as many questions as they answer.
This, in a nutshell, is why Career Imprints makes such an impressive contribution to the lit-erature. Working from a wide range of sources, including reports filed with the U. Securities and Exchange Commission by young biotech firms, data collected from the firms themselves, and lengthy interviews with biotech executives about their careers, Higgins provides an extraordinarily rich and detailed picture of the impact of one firm Baxter, a major U. But this book is much more than a report on the careers of biotech executives.
In puzzling over why it was that the "Baxter boys," as Higgins calls them, occupied such an influential place in the industry, she deduces that what she terms an "imprinting" process was at work. The early years that these executives spent at Baxter "imprinted" them. She compares the process with the filial imprinting that newborn chicks experience when they attach themselves to the first significant moving object they see with the entrepreneurial instincts that differentiated Baxter from many other firms in its industry.
So the book is an exploration of how the imprinting process works, the impact it had on the growth of a young industry, and how different firms imprint their managers differently.
Despite the comparison of career imprinting with what happens to newborn chicks, this is not a book that delves into the psychology of career processes. Higgins defines career imprinting as the "capabilities, connections, confidence and cognition that groups of people develop as a result of a common set of career experiences in a particular organization" p. It is, she argues, an organizational-level phenomenon: the impact of culture, socialization processes, "stretch" opportunities and demonstrated success on people during the early stage of their career.
Personal characteristics matter: some people are better suited, for example, to an entrepreneurial Baxter culture than others. And career paths-for example, "hopping" from one function to another to gain a breadth of business experiences-characterize the imprinting process, too. Essentially, then, Higgins is inferring the imprinting process from two main data sources.
For example, Merck's more scientific imprinting placed its alumni on boards as scientific advisors, by contrast with Baxter's, which led the "boys" to top management positions.
Second, she shows how organizational strategy, structure, and culture are affected by the imprinting of incoming CEOs, by contrasting what happened to Genzyme, which acquired an ex-Baxter CEO, with what happened at Biogen, whose incoming CEO came from Abbott. The two CEOs appear to have imported many of the ways of doing things that they had learned at their imprinting organizations. And she shows how influential the Baxter imprinting was at the industry level, affecting the evolution of the biotech industry.
The study is impressive for its breadth and depth companies and over 3, individuals, 75 of whom were interviewed. Indeed, so rich is the book in detail that it is worth reading just as an account of the growth of an important sector of the turn-of-the-century American economy. But a curious bubble surrounds the imprinting process itself.
Although the four c's of imprinting are listed capabilities, connections, confidence, and cognition , their action is not observed directly. Because life at Baxter instilled entrepreneurial habits, and Baxter managers often ended up in top management jobs in a nascent, entrepreneurial industry, the inference is that something happened to them which made them entrepreneurial, and "career imprinting" seems a good label for it. But could it have been the effect of attractionselection-attrition ASA; Schneider, ?
Did, for example, Baxter attract more entrepreneurially inclined people than Merck, and did they do better there than scientifically inclined people, while the opposite was the case for Merck? One cannot tell from the data here; indeed, without the kind of population-level data for each firm that, for example, Rosenbaum collected it is not easy to see how one could. That said, the book addresses directly a question that has swirled around the issue raised at the beginning of this review: can a good manager manage anything, or is specific knowledge an advantage?
Higgins argues in essence that something must be going on during managers' formative years as managers to shape them so that they will have ways of doing things that fit better with some corporate environments than others. Indeed, if enough of them flood into a particular industry, under the right circumstances that something can play a part in shaping the industry. Career imprinting seems as good a label as any to apply to the something.
Evidently the book raises questions, most notably about the nature of the imprinting process itself. Are, for example, the four c's all implicated, as Higgins suggests? Is ASA a valid explanation for at least part of what she observed? She has begun mining a rich vein, and scholars of careers should find a great deal to do as a result.
But this is not easy research; it involves more than administering questionnaires to first-year psychology or MBA students, and for that reason not many are going to want to do it. Yet the theoretical and practical questions are important. In sum, this book views careers as more than simply the biographies-objective or subjective-of people at work.
As Higgins puts it: ". Her point is that careers are patterns of social reproduction, and that these careers give form to the organizations and industries within which the careers are lived.
Distilling this extremely difficult idea into the elegantly simple concept of career imprints, and studying it empirically in such depth in a major new industry, biotechnology, is a major achievement. These strategies appear to be eminently reasonable and actionable by readers. For example, Power suggests that readers identify tasks that they personally find interesting, employers they would find enjoyable, and the skills and knowledge areas needed to succeed in different career paths.
She also encourages readers to scan the business environment carefully for opportunities, to network extensively, and to take time to reflect on changes in their personal lives and how they mesh with professional goals.
Ferguson's Career Guidance Center
Career counseling is a type of advice-giving and support provided by career counselors to their clients, to help the clients manage their journey through life, learning and work changes career. This includes career exploration, making career choices, managing career changes, lifelong career development and dealing with other career-related issues. There is no agreed definition of career counseling worldwide, mainly due to conceptual, cultural and linguistic differences. Career counseling is related to other types of counseling e. What unites all types of professional counseling is the role of practitioners, who combine giving advice on their topic of expertise with counseling techniques that support clients in making complex decisions and facing difficult situations.
Sign In Wish List 0 Help. Encyclopedia of Careers and Vocational Guidance —now in its 17th edition—remains the most comprehensive career reference in print. This unparalleled resource has been expanded to six volumes and fully revised to contain the most accurate and current career information available. The six-volume Encyclopedia of Careers and Vocational Guidance, 17th Edition is an essential resource for public, college, high school, and junior high school libraries; career centers; guidance offices; and other agencies involved with career exploration and planning. Each article has been thoroughly revised and updated, and many new articles have been added. Comprehensive career information, sidebars, and user-friendly features, including the Career Ladder, which shows common career paths for each profession, provide a clear picture of what it takes to launch a successful career. Called out by graphic icons are the top fastest-growing careers, the highest-paying jobs, and the top careers that experts predict will add the greatest number of positions.
ENC 1101 (Spottke) - Career/Company Research: Career Research
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Download Encyclopedia Of Careers And Vocational Guidance Career Guidance And Career Field Profiles books, This set covers more than careers, giving a general description of the job or career field, the personal and professional requirements, salary statistics, work environment, future outlook for the field, and sources for more information. Encyclopedia of Careers and Vocational Guidancenow in its 15th editionremains the most comprehensive career reference in print. This unparalleled resource has been fully revised and updated to contain the most accurate and current career information available. Encyclopedia of Careers and Vocational Guidance now in its 16th edition remains the most comprehensive career reference in print.
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