Commissioning And Quality Assurance Of Treatment Planning Computers Pdf

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The treatment planning system TPS has become a key element in the radiotherapy process with the introduction of computer tomography CT based 3D conformal treatment planning. Most of the TPS require these beam data to be generated with routine collimator jaws. This prompted us to investigate whether beam data with jaws differ than that with MLC and whether the jaw based beam data would suffice for the commissioning of a MLC on a TPS.

Commissioning and quality assurance of treatment planning computers

Regret for the inconvenience: we are taking measures to prevent fraudulent form submissions by extractors and page crawlers. Received: October 01, Published: November 30, J Cancer Prev Curr Res 6 2 : DOI: Download PDF.

Objective: A process and system of treatment planning is very important in radiation therapy. The features of the software and the accuracy in the dose calculation and dose distribution will affect to the treatment quality as well as the patient outcome.

When a treatment planning system is applied in treatment at the first time, it should be checked and approved all its system information, features, plan assessment tools and dose calculation modules as well.

That process is called Commissioning for treatment planning system. The commissioning for XiO was performed according to international procedures and protocols which were set up by our Medical Physics. All system information, the features and functions of the software and the beam data were collected as well.

Results and Conclusions: The results for percentage depth dose have shown that the maximum accuracy was 0. We found the accuracy of A treatment planning system TPS is very necessary in radiation process.

To apply in clinical purpose, it should be completely accepted and checked all of features of modules, dose calculations and evaluation tools as well. A process of overall tests ensuring the sufficient package of TPS according to the initial requirements is called Commissioning and Validation [1].

Some Commissioning forms were designed, collected and checked by at least 2 MPs, consisting of: Commissioning for all information and features; Commissioning for all modules and functions; Commissioning for dosimetry and Measurements, comparisons and evaluations for all algorithms. To keep our radiation equipments under control, all information of XiO TPS would be completely collected and managed according to our forms [2] Figure 1.

Like other TPSs, XiO had a lot of interfaces including much different functionality, so we had to checked and confirmed for technical catching, upgrading and exchanging in the near future.

To adjust dose calculation in any tissues with different density, all commercial TPS in general and XiO in particular also used a sample of Electron density dataset, and it was usually installed into XiO at the beginning, but whether it should be suitable or not [3]. At Cho Ray hospital, we scanned a density phantom for creating new Electron density dataset and evaluating together with XiO sample dataset at the same time [4] Figure 2.

Dosimetry Commissioning was performed on the XiO guideline and focused on beam data collection list. After that, a process of beam modeling would be done and input into XiO. It is very essential that all beam data and beam models should be correct. To do it, some measurements were implemented and compared between XiO calculations and actual measurements at the same setup. Typically, we contoured virtual images which were relative to water by scanning many plates of RW3 phantom on CT scanner Figure 3.

It also showed the smaller deviation of density scanning on kVp than kVp. To apply the beam data collection from Commissioning into clinical purpose, we performed a lot of measurements to evaluate the difference between the TPS calculation and actual irradiation. For dose distribution, some opened-fields and standard wedged-field 10x10 were measured at any certain depths Table 2 and 3.

Field size c m 2. The results were suitable at all depths for opened-fields and wedged-field at not larger than 20cm depths. Since, the big difference between TPS calculation and measurement in wedged-field was at 20cm depth, 5. An evaluation Beam Profiles, especially for asymmetric field was also considered and both A-B and G-T directions were quite the same. We showed the result of Asymmetric Collimator Profile with 2. Dose difference between 2 Electron Density correction algorithms in Nasal cavity and Lung case was reported in Table 5.

It showed the big deviation between Convolution and Super position algorithm for each case which had significant variation of Electron density. We also setup the MU calculation at 0,0,10 iso-center and estimated the results of all algorithms for each weighting point Table 6. Table 1: Clinical and biochemical variables of individuals with overweight-obesity. For taking under control and applying into clinical radiotherapy, it is very important that the treatment planning system have to be commissioned and validated by clinical and qualified medical physicists.

The overall collection of system information will help us generally assess the situation and directionally expand our TPS, like upgrading or new purchasing. The Electron density measurement showed the different between XiO dataset sample and measurement. Thus, we recommended our planner that the usage of Electron dataset has to be exactly selected, kVp was suggested for all protocols due to insignificant accuracy, except for children patient, kVp was applied.

For selecting the suitable algorithms of dose calculation, we proposed that all cases should plan by algorithm including Electron density correction and Super position was considered as the final algorithm for any special cases, for instance Head and Neck and Thorax regions. Thus, it is essential that our planner should be careful in planning with any higher depths, especially for wedged-field. It is quite imperative that both calculation and measurement be the same at low dose gradients and enough small at high dose gradients.

So, we intend to perform more measurements for checking any points in each profile. This study is entitled some procedures and forms which were initially implemented in Commissioning and Validation for XiO treatment planning system by our Medical Physics team. Because of insufficient tools, limitations of time and experience, some of measurements are going to be designed and validated, like angle of motorized wedge, MLC effects.

In brief, Commissioning is very important and indispensable in radiotherapy. Generally, we recommend all cancer centers and Vietnamese Medical Physicists in particular should focus on its process to finally increase our patients treatment outcome. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.

Withdrawal Guidlines. Publication Ethics. Withdrawal Policies Publication Ethics. Journal of. Research Article Volume 6 Issue 2. Go to Figure 2: Scanning of density phantom. Figure 3: Dose distribution on RW3. Figure 4: Comparison of actual density and XiO reading. Tweets by medcraveonline. Spatial Accuracy mm. Weighting point.

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CT images of a phantom with various known in-homogeneities were acquired. The images were transferred to TPS and tested for various parameters related to patient data acquisition, anatomical modeling, plan evaluation and dose calculation. Dosimetric parameters including open, asymmetric and wedged shaped fields, oblique incidence, buildup region behavior and SSD dependence were evaluated. Representative clinical cases were tested for MU calculation and point doses. The results of all non-dosimetric tests were found within tolerance, however expansion at the sharp corners was found distorted.

Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. Read article at publisher's site DOI : Med Phys, 4 Acta Oncol. Br J Radiol, Cited by: 7 articles PMID:

This report deals with a comprehensive commissioning and ongoing quality assurance program specifically for treatment planning computers.

Commissioning And Quality Assurance Of A Treatment Planning System Pdf

The process of radiation therapy is complex and involves many steps. At each step, comprehensive quality assurance procedures are required to ensure the safe and accurate delivery of a prescribed radiation dose. This report deals with a comprehensive commissioning and ongoing quality assurance program specifically for treatment planning computers. Detailed guidelines are provided under the following topics: a computer program and system documentation and user training, b sources of uncertainties and suggested tolerances, c initial system checks, d repeated system checks, e quality assurance through manual procedures, and in vivo dosimetry, and f some additional considerations including administration and manpower requirements.

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View at publisher. The simulation tool was verified via simulation of standard commissioning dosimetry data acquired with an ionisation chamber in a water phantom. Verification of the MLC model was achieved by simulation of leaf leakage measurements performed using GafchromicTM film in a solid water phantom. An absolute dose calibration capability was added by including a virtual monitor chamber into the simulation.

Standards The Joint Commission.

Cancer Prevention & Current Research

Regret for the inconvenience: we are taking measures to prevent fraudulent form submissions by extractors and page crawlers. Received: October 01, Published: November 30, J Cancer Prev Curr Res 6 2 :

Черный ход представлял собой несколько строк хитроумной программы, которые вставил в алгоритм коммандер Стратмор. Они были вмонтированы так хитро, что никто, кроме Грега Хейла, их не заметил, и практически означали, что любой код, созданный с помощью Попрыгунчика, может быть взломан секретным паролем, известным только АНБ. Стратмору едва не удалось сделать предлагаемый стандарт шифрования величайшим достижением АНБ: если бы он был принят, у агентства появился бы ключ для взлома любого шифра в Америке. Люди, знающие толк в компьютерах, пришли в неистовство. Фонд электронных границ, воспользовавшись вспыхнувшим скандалом, поносил конгресс за проявленную наивность и назвал АНБ величайшей угрозой свободному миру со времен Гитлера.

Совершенно верно. Простые числа играют важнейшую роль в японской культуре. Стихосложение хайку основано на простых числах. Три строки по пять, семь и снова пять слогов. Во всех храмах Киото… - Довольно! - сказал Джабба.  - Если ключ - простое число, то что с. Варианты бесконечны.

Proposal on Guideline for Quality Assurance of Radiation Treatment Planning System


Стратмор сохранял спокойствие. - И что же это за секрет. - Вы отлично знаете это. Это Цифровая крепость. - Вот как? - снисходительно произнес Стратмор холодным как лед голосом.

 Я вижу, ты выдающийся командный игрок. Может быть, можно взглянуть? - Он встал и начал обходить круг терминалов, двигаясь по направлению к. Сьюзан понимала, что сегодня любопытство Хейла может привести к большим неприятностям, поэтому быстро приняла решение. - Это диагностика, - сказала она, взяв на вооружение версию коммандера. Хейл остановился: - Диагностика? - В голосе его слышалось недоверие.  - Ты тратишь на это субботу, вместо того чтобы развлекаться с профессором.

Он принял решение. Под визг покрышек, в снопе искр Беккер резко свернул вправо и съехал с дороги. Колеса мотоцикла подпрыгнули, ударившись о бетонное ограждение, так что он едва сумел сохранить равновесие. Из-под колес взметнулся гравий. Мотоцикл начал подниматься по склону. Колеса неистово вращались на рыхлой земле.

Вы его запомнили. - Вы сказали, что он приходил. Беккер услышал, как его собеседница листает книгу заказов.

Хейл, видимо, не догадывается, что она видела его внизу. - Стратмор знает, что я это видел! - Хейл сплюнул.  - Он и меня убьет. Если бы Сьюзан не была парализована страхом, она бы расхохоталась ему в лицо. Она раскусила эту тактику разделяй и властвуй, тактику отставного морского пехотинца.

Иными словами, СЦР представляла собой оценочную стоимость вскрытия ТРАНСТЕКСТОМ одного шифра. Если цена не превышала тысячи долларов, Фонтейн никак не реагировал. Тысчонка за сеанс.

Стратмор понял, что ставки повышаются. Он впутал в это дело Сьюзан и должен ее вызволить. Голос его прозвучал, как всегда, твердо: - А как же мой план с Цифровой крепостью. Хейл засмеялся: - Можете пристраивать к ней черный ход - я слова не скажу.

 По-прежнему чепуха, - с отвращением скривился Джабба.

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