File Name: distinguish between modernization and modernity in sociology .zip
- Modernity and the Idea of Progress
- Modernity and its Critics
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- Distinguish between modernization and modernity in sociology
This paper aims to show the centrality the concept of progress occupies explicitly and implicitly in social theory, in relation to the theorization and understanding of modernity; it also raises the question whether in times where Eurocentrism, logocentrism, and indeed almost every claim of supremacy are rightly viewed with suspicion, it is possible to think of modernity without relying on some interpretation of the notion of progress. Arguably, the theme of progress, together with the complementary notion of decline, can be considered as a key-component of discourses concerning modernity and has played a major role in the shaping of social theory. Comte and Durkheim relied in different ways in the idea of progress and the same holds for Marxist accounts of social change. Even later, sociological theories address modernity from the perspective of progress, Parsons being exemplary in this respect. Moreover, theoretical discourses adopting a critical or even hostile attitude against the modern project often question the idea of progress and are woven around the representation of modernity in terms of decline and regression into unreason, as, e.
Modernity and the Idea of Progress
Haferkamp is grateful to Angelika Schade for her fruitful comments and her helpful assistance in editing this volume and to Geoff Hunter for translating the first German version of parts of the Introduction; Smelser has profited from the research assistance and critical analyses given by Joppke. Those who organized the conference on which this volume is based—including the editors—decided to use the terms "social change" and "modernity" as the organizing concepts for this project. Because these terms enjoy wide usage in contemporary sociology and are general and inclusive, they seem preferable to more specific terms such as "evolution" "progress," "differentiation," or even "development," many of which evoke more specific mechanisms, processes, and directions of change. Likewise, we have excluded historically specific terms such as "late capitalism" and "industrial society" even though these concepts figure prominently in many of the contributions to this volume. The conference strategy called for a general statement of a metaframework for the study of social change within which a variety of more specific theories could be identified.
Modernity , a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period the modern era and the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms , attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of the Renaissance —in the " Age of Reason " of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century " Enlightenment ". Some commentators consider the era of modernity to have ended by , with World War II in , or the s or s; the following era is called postmodernity. The term " contemporary history " is also used to refer to the post timeframe, without assigning it to either the modern or postmodern era. Thus "modern" may be used as a name of a particular era in the past, as opposed to meaning "the current era". Depending on the field, "modernity" may refer to different time periods or qualities. In historiography, the 17th and 18th centuries are usually described as early modern , while the long 19th century corresponds to " modern history " proper.
Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies. Modernization refers to a model of a progressive transition from a 'pre-modern' or ' traditional ' to a 'modern' society. Modernization theory originated from the ideas of German sociologist Max Weber — , which provided the basis for the modernization paradigm developed by Harvard sociologist Talcott Parsons — The theory looks at the internal factors of a country while assuming that with assistance, "traditional" countries can be brought to development in the same manner more developed countries have been. Modernization theory was a dominant paradigm in the social sciences in the s and s, then went into a deep eclipse. It made a comeback after but remains a controversial model. Modernization theory both attempts to identify the social variables that contribute to social progress and development of societies and seeks to explain the process of social evolution.
Modernity and its Critics
This article looks at the concept of modernity and the philosophy of its critics. It discusses the epochal shift and the secularization of a traditional order that had been imbued with divine or natural purpose and suggests that the condition of modernity refers to a set of institutional structures associated with popular elections, rule by law and a secular bureaucracy. The article also contends that modernity is alive and kicking even within a theoretical framework of postmodernism. Keywords: modernity , epochal shift , institutional structures , popular elections , rule by law , secular bureaucracy , postmodernism. As I contend at the end of this chapter, modernity is alive and kicking even within a theoretical framework of post modernism. In what does the condition of modernity consist? First, in a distinctive constellation of intellectual tendencies, including the propensity to subject established norms and practices to critical reflection, to seek physical causes for disease, to believe both in universal human rights and in cultural specificity, and to affirm oneself as an individual even while lamenting the lack of community.
Definitions and Characteristics of Modernity Since the term "Modern" is used to describe a wide range of periods, any definition of modernity must account for the context in question. Modern can mean all of post-medieval European history, in the context of dividing history into three large epochs: Antiquity, Medieval, and Modern. Likewise, it is often used to describe the Euro-American culture that arises out of the Enlightenment and continues in some way into the present. The term "Modern" is also applied to the period beginning somewhere between and , through the present, and even more specifically to the period. One common use of the term, "Early Modern" is to describe the condition of Western History either since the mid's, or roughly the European discovery of moveable type and the printing press, or the early 's, the period associated with the rise of the Enlightenment project. These periods can be characterized by:.
structural dimension of modernity was seen in the tendency to structural differentiation – manifest among others in growing urbanization; commodifica- tion of the.
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The last decade has witnessed a revival of interest in the problems of modernity and modernization.
Distinguish between modernization and modernity in sociology
- Отпусти. - Чатрукьян был совсем мальчишка. Ради всего святого, зачем вы это сделали. Чтобы скрыть свою маленькую тайну. Стратмор сохранял спокойствие. - И что же это за секрет. - Вы отлично знаете это .
Сьюзан заколебалась, но все же поехала. По приезде группу сразу же разделили. Все они подверглись проверке на полиграф-машине, иными словами - на детекторе лжи: были тщательно проверены их родственники, изучены особенности почерка, и с каждым провели множество собеседований на всевозможные темы, включая сексуальную ориентацию и соответствующие предпочтения. Когда интервьюер спросил у Сьюзан, не занималась ли она сексом с животными, она с трудом удержалась, чтобы не выбежать из кабинета, но, так или иначе, верх взяли любопытство, перспектива работы на самом острие теории кодирования, возможность попасть во Дворец головоломок и стать членом наиболее секретного клуба в мире - Агентства национальной безопасности. Беккер внимательно слушал ее рассказ. - В самом деле спросили про секс с животными. Сьюзан пожала плечами.
Да, я сегодня нашел в парке чей-то паспорт. Ваш номер был записан на клочке бумаги и вложен в паспорт. Я было подумал, что это номер гостиницы, где тот человек остановился, и хотел отдать ему паспорт. Но вышла ошибка. Я, пожалуй, занесу его в полицейский участок по пути в… - Perdon, - прервал его Ролдан, занервничав.
Он знал, что где-то за этой витиеватой резной дверью находится кольцо. Вопрос национальной безопасности. За дверью послышалось движение, раздались голоса. Он постучал. Послышался голос с сильным немецким акцентом: - Ja.
С левого экрана в камеру неотрывно смотрели Дэвид и агенты Смит и Колиандер. На ВР последняя стенка напоминала тонюсенькую пленку. Вокруг нее было черно от нитей, готовых ринуться внутрь.