File Name: government and markets toward a new theory of regulation .zip
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- Economic Incentives
- Regulation & the Economy
- The Globalization of Markets
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Public choice , or public choice theory , is "the use of economic tools to deal with traditional problems of political science ".
Regulation & the Economy
By: Edward J. Balleisen and David A. Abstract After two generations of emphasis on governmental inefficiency and the need for deregulation, we now see growing interest in the possibility of constructive governance, alongside public calls for new, smarter regulation. Yet there is a real danger that regulatory reforms will be rooted in outdated ideas. As the financial crisis has shown, neither traditional market-failure models nor public-choice theory, by themselves, sufficiently inform or explain our current regulatory challenges. Regulatory studies, long neglected in an atmosphere focused on deregulatory work, is in critical need of new models and theories that can guide effective policy-making.
The authors analyze the relations of government and the market from many different angles, showing the fallacies of simple critiques on the basis of deep scholarship. The hope and promise of this work is for a more civilized and creative capitalism. As the financial crisis has shown, neither traditional market failure models nor public choice theory, by themselves, sufficiently inform or explain our current regulatory challenges, nor point us toward the best solutions. Regulatory studies, long neglected in an atmosphere focused on deregulatory work, are in critical need of new models and theories that can guide effective policymaking. This interdisciplinary volume points the way toward the modernization of regulatory theory: its essays, by leading scholars in a number of fields, move past predominant approaches to integrate the latest research about the interplay between human behavior, societal needs, and regulatory institutions. The book concludes by charting a research agenda for scholars that would better incorporate emerging perspectives on government regulation, with the hope of sparking sustained academic engagement on questions of regulation and the economic role of the state.
The Globalization of Markets
Policy-makers have two broad types of instruments available for changing consumption and production habits in society. They can use traditional regulatory approaches sometimes referred to as command-and-control approaches that set specific standards across polluters, or they can use economic incentive or market-based policies that rely on market forces to correct for producer and consumer behavior. Incentives are extensively discussed in several EPA reports:. Two basic types of traditional regulatory approaches exist.
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Governments intervene in markets to address inefficiency. In an optimally efficient market, resources are perfectly allocated to those that need them in the amounts they need. In inefficient markets that is not the case; some may have too much of a resource while others do not have enough.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The United States is actually neither as innocent of nor as unskilled at industrial policy as many Americans seem to believe. In his "Report on Manufactures" of , Alexander Hamilton gave classical expression to what is today a commonplace of industrial policy theory: the understanding that market prices are important and effective signals for adjusting supply and demand in the short run but that they are quite inadequate as guides for investment decisions about new technologies, choice of products, and scales of production ten to fifteen years hence. Hamilton wrote, "Capital is wayward and timid in lending itself to new undertakings, and the State ought to excite the confidence of capitalists, who are ever cautious and sagacious, by aiding them overcome the obstacles that lie in the way of all experiments.
Toward a New Theory of Regulation. $ (P). Editors: Edward J. Balleisen, Duke University, North Carolina.
China pledged to preserve much of what makes Hong Kong unique when the former British colony was handed over more than two decades ago. Beijing said it would give Hong Kong fifty years to keep its capitalist system and enjoy many freedoms not found in mainland Chinese cities. But it seems that these promises are fading. These moves sparked massive protests in Hong Kong and have drawn international condemnation. In , Beijing passed a controversial national security law and arrested dozens of pro-democracy activists and lawmakers, dimming hopes that Hong Kong will ever become a full-fledged democracy.
Development economics is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low income countries. Its focus is not only on methods of promoting economic development , economic growth and structural change but also on improving the potential for the mass of the population, for example, through health, education and workplace conditions, whether through public or private channels. Development economics involves the creation of theories and methods that aid in the determination of policies and practices and can be implemented at either the domestic or international level. Unlike in many other fields of economics, approaches in development economics may incorporate social and political factors to devise particular plans.
Many companies have become disillusioned with sales in the international marketplace as old markets become saturated and new ones must be found. How can they customize products for the demands of new markets? Which items will consumers want? In this powerful essay, the author asserts that well-managed companies have moved from emphasis on customizing items to offering globally standardized products that are advanced, functional, reliable—and low priced. Multinational companies that concentrated on idiosyncratic consumer preferences have become befuddled and unable to take in the forest because of the trees.