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- Advanced Geometrical Optics
- Geometrical Optics and Optical Design
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Mukamel Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy 6. Mouroulis and J. Perhaps the recent history of geometrical optics can be seen from the point of view of textbook simplification, with an attendant increase in the number of optics practitioners.
The mettle of the potential designer had to be tested; after surviving Conrady, the idea of spending days and nights in the company of log tables to trace one skew ray seemed perhaps not too daunting. Computers, lasers, and all of the developments that have led to the so-called Photonics revolution bave caused a large increase in the number of optics Practitioners.
Often engineers with no formal optics training beyond that of basic physics find themselves in a position of having to deal with optics at an advanced level. Optical design software is now widely available, sometimes at an incredibly low price, and the mere availability is creating new users. Of equal importance 1s the fact that in the past couple of decades, the mentality, expectations, and background of the students have changed considerably.
And as a rule, textbooks in geometrical optics have not kept pace with those developments. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date treatment of the introductory aspects of geometrical optics that can be used by a variety of students at different levels, from undergraduate to introductory graduate.
The book begins with a short introduction to the very basic concepts of rays, wavefronts, etc. This is not intended to compete with a first-year physics course, but to supplement the knowledge given in such a course by viewing it from a somewhat different vantage point.
The second chapter begins with exploring quantitatively the properties of plane reflective and refractive surfaces, and proceeds with a qualitative introduc- tion to the basic properties of lenses and mirrors. It is expected that this chapter is primarily a review. Its main aim is to collect the scattered bits and pieces of the reader's optical knowledge into one coherent whole, before proceeding with the more rigorous development. The student should be expected to master such material quickly: While it is crucial to learn the alphabet, spending too much time on it comes only at the expense of further development.
The next three chapters develop the theory of first-order Gaussian optics. Chapter 3 examines image formation by a single surface and a thin lens, Chapter 4 examines lens systems and introduces some more advanced, yet fundamental, topics, such as principal planes and the optical Lagrange invariant.
The strategy for teaching these two chapters should vary according to the level of the class. For an elementary class, Chapter 3 should be done at a deliberate pace; for this reason, it contains considerably more exercises than the previous two chapters.
For a more advanced class, Chapter 3 would be primarily a review; it can be covered in the span of approximately 3 hours, by concentrating mostly on the sign convention, terminology, and notation, all of which must be very familiar before proceeding further.
Pupils and stops come in Chapter 5, followed by a section on radiometry and photometry that contains enough material to be useful in the majority of practical situations. This chapter also develops and expands the concepts of the marginal and pupil principal rays, which are the key to first-order system design. However, the treatment of Gaussian optics is not really complete without expanding at least into the first two sections of Chapter 6 telescope and microscope.
The Gaussian optics of optical instruments is a practically interminable topic; so one must be selective, In Chapter 6, we hope we have succeeded in treating a satisfactory number of topics at a sufficiently rigorous and accessible level.
Inevitably, however, the section on diffractive elements offers only intuitive arguments, as we cannot develop diffraction theory in this book.
Next we approach the concept of aberrations and image quality, starting from the chromatic aberrations, which can be readily understood without new theory. However, monochromatic aberrations necessitate the development of new concepts.
In the aberration chapters, we place heavy emphasis on the wavefront description, This approach simplifies and unifies the concepts, in addition to providing an immediate extension into the diffraction theory that is necessary for full evaluation of an optical system.
Thus, although we do not treat the diffraction theory of aberrations, upon encountering it the reader should not find it alien. In the aberration chapters, we have sacrificed a strict development of the theory on a couple of occasions, by offering abbreviated versions of some lengthy derivations. Including the full versions of the proofs would detract from the continuity of the text, confuse the reader, and ultimately offer very little to the literature, as enough such proofs can be found elsewhere.
However, we have made an effort to include most of the important physical insights that are hidden in the proofs, In all of the aberration chapters, we have concentrated on rotationally symmetric systems, because they contain all of the fundamental concepts. The reader who wants more on aberrations is expected to resort to additional books and articles. Chapters 8 and 9 attempt to do for aberrations what Chapter 5 did for Gaussian optics.
At the end of Chapter 9, the reader has enough information to attack an image quality problem by setting up a preliminary design that does not violate any fundamental aberration rules and therefore has a chance of fulfilling the design requirements after optimization.
Of course, this claim must be qualified by excluding systems with exotic aperture or field specifications that can be attacked only by experienced designers. Finally, Chapter 10 outlines the optical design process, extends the aberration discussion to higher orders, and discusses briefly topics such as off-axis pupil imagery, aspherics, and optimization.
There are six appendixes, four of which contain additional material, while the last two contain simple computer programs. The first four appendixes can be taught as desired by the instructor. Although we do not believe in the cffectiveness of matrix methods as an instructional tool, we nevertheless have included them in Appendix 1 so that the reader can refer to them upon encountering a matrix-based development elsewhere.
Appendix 2 on Gaussian beams is almost as long as a chapter; its importance is that it contains a treatment of Gaussian beams that is consistent with the rest of the book, rests on the concept of the optical invariant, and can be programmed into any computer using the usual paraxial ray-tracing equations of the marginal and Pupil rays. In solving problems, we have found that the methods of Appendix 2 are as fast as or faster than matrix-based calculations, while the concepts are undoubtedly simpler.
While advanced software is needed for advanced problems, we hope to have succeeded in showing that a lot of worthwhile optical design as opposed to detailed lens design can be done with simple means. But in any case, this is an introductory text; serious lens design begins where this book ends. Contents The emphasis on primary or third-order aberration theory that is placed in this book is not accidental.
We believe that the understanding of optical system characteristics afforded by the third-order theory will become even more crucial as the practice of optical design moves increasingly towards modifying past designs with the help of expensive software. There is a danger that the student of today and engineer of tomorrow will be limited to a shallow knowledge of software usage, but will possess no real understanding of the underlying concepts. We therefore chose not to couple this book closely with any extensive software package, because doing so would entail one of the following two unattractive choices: doubling the size and scope of the book, or discussing several topics at a shallow level, without developing the appropriate theory.
We expect the book to be useful to students enrolled in undergraduate and graduate optics, or optics-related degree programs, and programs that have considerable optics concentration, typically physics and electrical engineering. We also hope that the book will be of use to the increasing number 1.
Waves, Wavelronts, and Rays 3 of professionals who find that they need some optical design knowledge, but 1. Hopkins, passed Fermat's Principle 10 away. Harold, this book is a thank you note—and you are absolutely blameless 14, Irradiance and the Inverse-Square Law 13 role, thi se-S fdr, our, taista lee 1. September 2. Review of Elementary Ray Optics 18 2.
Plane Surfaces 18 2. Refracting Surfaces 20 2. Imagery by a Single Surface and a Thin Lens 38 3. The Sign Convention 38 3. Imagery by a Single Surface 40 3. The Conjugate Equation 40 3. Power and Focal Lengths of a Surface 42 3. Imagery by a Thin Lens 44 Thin Lens Conjugate Equation 44 3. Power of a Thin Lens in Air 45 3. Focal Lengths of a Thin Lens 46 3.
Many Surfaces in Contact 48 3. Throw 49 Imagery of an Extended Object. Magnification 50 3. The One-Component Design Problem 52 3. Other Types of Magnification 54 3. Visual Magnification 55 3. Longitudinal Magnification. Imagery of a Volume 57 Gaussian Optics 62 4. The Paraxial Height and Angle Variables 62 4.
Advanced Geometrical Optics
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Mouroulis and J. Mouroulis , J. Macdonald Published Physics. Rays and the Foundations of Geometrical Optics 2.
Skip to Main Content. A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. Geometrical optics reviewed: A new light on an old subject Abstract: The traditional view of geometrical optics as the ray-tracing procedure for the design of mirror, prism, and lens systems of uniform optical components, has become enlarged in recent years. This has been brought about by the applications of electromagnetic systems at ever decreasing wavelengths on the one hand, and by new optical components, such as optical fibers and integrated optical elements, on the other. The range of geometrical optics now includes such concepts as optics-in-the-large, wide-angle and aspheric designs, geodesic optics, and the optics of nonuniform media.
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optical surfaces to spec,” and how to apply the principles of geometrical optics to We exploit the phenomenon of total internal reflection when designing light.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. This book computes the first- and second-order derivative matrices of skew ray and optical path length, while also providing an important mathematical tool for automatic optical design.
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Geometrical Optics and Optical Design
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