File Name: e government adoption and acceptance a literature review .zip
- e-Government Adoption Model (GAM): Differing service maturity levels
- Journal of Asian Review of Public Affairs and Policy
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e-Government Adoption Model (GAM): Differing service maturity levels
This paper is available online at www. Researches in electronic government have indicated a number of organizational barriers that hinder the adoption and implementation of electronic government. This paper proposes a research framework for analysing how organizational barriers influence the adoption and implementation of e-government at local levels.
The framework is constructed based on four organizational dimensions; adaptability, involvement, mission, and bureaucracy drawn from organizational theories and e-government literature. We found that organizational barriers which are identified in major e-government literature link to the dimensions of organizational culture and effectiveness.
Our conclusion is that the framework is relevant to understand organizational barriers influencing adoption and implementation of local e-government. The limitation of this study is that the framework has been developed based on the application of a theoretical lens on the e-government literature. It is now necessary to test this model in different contexts. Electronic government e-government is defined as the use of information and communication technology, particularly the Internet, as the means to improve government administration efficiency and deliver services to citizens, businesses, and other entities , .
The intention to implement e-government projects by government organizations has intensified as citizens' demand better services. The citizens' demand is triggered by experiences of the benefits of information technology implementation in private organizations which have resulted in similar benefits expectation from government organizations such as local governments , .
Consequently, information technology implementation in local government organizations needs to accommodate these expectations and demands. In other words, local governments are confronted with stakeholders' needs, such as citizens, companies, and higher levels of governmental organizations, to implement information technology in delivering better services and products . However, e-government adoption and implementation is a challenging issue for many governments, particularly at local level, since many factors impede the implementations.
These impeding factors includes technological , , financial , , and organizational constraints , . Several e-government studies indicate that there are many barriers related to the organizational constraints; for example unclear vision and strategy , , ambiguous missions and goals , , lack of coordination , , lack of partnership , organizational structure , and inappropriate change management .
These aspects have mainly been addressed in general terms without identifying how the barriers influence the adoption and implementation of e-government at organizational level, particularly at local government levels where the central governments might dictate the adoption and implementation process.
This study proposes a framework for understanding the influences of local e-government adoption and implementation from an organisational perspective. We integrate two well known organisational theories and apply them to local e-government adoption and implementation. We postulate that Denison and Mishra's theory on organisational culture and effectiveness is a useful starting point for understanding organizational barriers in local government organisations.
The bureaucratic environment of e-government suggests that Wallach's dimension of bureaucracy is more appropriate than Denison and Mishra's dimension of consistency. Chen  argues that theory integration is suitable for building frameworks within specific contextual and situational conditions. This paper, therefore, attempts to answer the following research question:.
How the organizational culture and effectiveness theory of Denison and Mishra , adapted with Wallach's  bureaucracy dimension, be integrated into a framework to explain organizational barriers influencing e-government adoption and implementation at local level? This paper will address the above research question as follows. Section 2 discusses the current environment of electronic local adoption and implementation, while the link between organizational dimensions with organizational barriers is described in section 3.
The next section identifies the barriers to e-government adoption and implementation from previous studies while section 5 validate the relationship of the organizational dimensions with organizational barriers in e-government adoption and implementation as well as we develop the framework to be applied in the study of the influence of organizational barriers to local e-government adoption and implementation.
Finally, we discuss implications and future research directions and our conclusions. In organisational context managers make the primary decision to adopt technology after identifying objectives to change aspects of the business . A secondary adoption decision is made by individual employees to adopt the technology , . This secondary adoption can either be mandated or voluntary depending on the context.
In an e-government initiative there are similarities in that there are several levels of adoption: central government, local government, employees of local government and citizens. However, adoption within government is complicated by the political nature and structure of government . The constitutional context of a government will determine the power of central government to mandate the adoption of technology at local level.
Therefore the adoption of e- government initiatives can be complex because "a government is an institution that holds the exclusive powers to enforce certain rules of social conduct in a given geographical area" . For example, the UK government launched a modernization agenda in to transform local authorities' performance across the UK. This new agenda has resulted in the implementation of e-government at local level across the UK .
In a further step, the UK central government have set "e-government targets" which mandated all government agencies provide on-line interactions between government agencies and the public by . Failure to conform to these policies and regulations can result in sanctions by central governments such as withdrawing funding that has been allocated to local governments . Similarly, the adoption and implementation of the Smart. Cards project in the medical sectors in Canada is mandatory .
These examples show that a central government has the power to impose the adoption of e-government on local government bodies by launching certain policies and regulations in order to improve governments' services. Another example from a voluntary perspective, with support from top management, is the successful adoption of an e-government portal by government departments in Hong Kong . The case of electronic tax managed by Central Excise in India is also voluntary and the citizens at local level are encouraged to adopt the system .
In both cases, the e-government initiatives are voluntarily adopted by lower levels although the initiatives are started at central level.
However, in the case of Tanzanian's Integrated Tax Administration ITAX , a part of e-government implementation , the project was mandatorily adopted by all tax regions of the country by The initiative was controlled and supported by a task force authority at central government level. From a grassroots level, in the United States the adoption of e-government at local levels was initiated before the E-Government Act ,  which included the planning of an e-government strategy and initiative implementation launched in .
This means the initiatives are developed on the basis of local government initiatives which are followed by government guidelines to support better implementation. Many local governments have implemented e-government voluntarily or mandatorily to improve their organizational performance in serving the citizens but have failed to sustain the initiatives. Some e-local government projects have successfully achieved their goals in providing better services to the citizens for years but failed to sustain them over the long term such as the case of Tamil Nadu in India  and South Sulawesi local government in Indonesia .
The above examples of e-government initiatives are drawn together in Figure 1 to show the instances of voluntary and mandatory adoption from central government through to citizen. Figure 1: Electronic local government adoption strategy. Even though local governments have made progress in implementing e-local government, the progress is slow . For example, the movement toward integrated and transactional e-government is slower in developing countries than developed countries such as the United States .
Slow development of e-government is caused by many factors such as low commitment of local authorities, absence of coordination and support from central level government to help local government move to transactional or integrated stages of e-government implementation .
The majority of electronic local government in developing countries are at the web presence stage  in which their offerings are primarily basic information. It is not surprising that the majority of developing countries experience more failure in e-government implementation . In none of the research identified has the role of the local government employee been identified and studied.
The following sections address the barriers of e-government adoption and implementation at local levels. In the context of government organizations, one measure of the effectiveness of a government's performance is the result of the adoption and implementation of e-government , , , , .
Denison and Mishra's  model 'identifies cultural traits and values associated with effectiveness'. These cultural traits and values are organised into four dimensions: adaptability, involvement, mission and consistency. In their model they distinguish between internal integration and external adaptation. The former refers to the positive identification of the organisation's people with the organisation's interests. The latter refers to the ability of organisations to develop their capacity to change in response to external conditions and expectations.
Denison and Mishra  also refer to stability and flexibility. Organisations, they argue, use the dimensions of mission and consistency to create stability, which plays an important role in achieving effectiveness.
While mission provides people in the organisation with clear directions and meaning, consistency establishes norms that facilitate their conformity. On the other hand, the level of organisation's flexibility enables it to adapt to external factors, which will lead to a change in the organization's knowledge and behaviour. This ability is supported by internalized values and shared beliefs that allow people to get involve and commit to change .
Previous studies have used Denison and Mishra as a means of explaining the environment of technology adoption such as internet adoption in India , information systems implementation in Kenyan public universities , and technology adoption within the Australian health sector . They do not however explore the cultural traits and values and their relationship with effectiveness.
In an examination of organizational barriers that hinder the effectiveness of e-government initiatives, we have identified several that bear similarities with Denison and Mishra's cultural dimensions. Given that these dimensions are associated with effectiveness we propose that using the model for constructing a framework will enhance understanding of the complicated issues that surround the adoption and implementation of e-government at local level.
The inclusion of internal and external factors in their model allow for the exploration of the complexity of the different constitutional contexts found in e-government adoption and implementation.
These complexities include the role of people and their commitment to their organization and the role of external pressures that affect the organization's ability to achieve effectiveness. Millard's  study into the measurement of e-government implementation effectiveness identified several organisational traits related to internal integration, such as the ability to reduce administrative burdens, improve user satisfaction and increase transparency.
At the same time Millard refers to the external factors that can impede or enhance the adoption and implementation of e-government. These factors, which relate to Denison and Mishra's external adaptation include actions by consumers, other governments or public sectors and economic or market conditions.
Further justification towards the relation of barriers in e-government adoption and implementation with Denison and Mishra's  organizational cultural dimensions, shown in Table 1, are found in e-government studies that identify organisational barriers.
For example, trust and people's skill in using the Internet have been associated with the culture to adopt e-government in the UK by Carter and Weerakkody .
Other factors identified include bureaucracy and management , hierarchy , mission, vision and goal , commitment , and transparency , . We propose that a framework based on the four organizational cultural dimensions developed by Denison and Mishra  will shed light on the effective adoption and implementation of e-government by local government organizations.
However, we do not adopt the fourth organizational dimension, consistency, as proposed by Denison and Mishra.
In previous research consistency has been renamed bureaucracy  without a careful consideration of the factors associated with bureaucracy. We develop the factors of bureaucracy as identified by Wallach  that refer to explicit rules, regulations, and hierarchies in an organization, which is typical of government organizations .
A more detailed discuss is provided in Section 3. Table 1: Organizational dimensions and relevant issues included. Involvement is organizational values that support members of an organization gain a sense of responsibility, and commitment in the organization through their involvement in an organization's activities . Barki and Hartwick  defines involvement as a subjective psychological state of users which is found in participative behaviour and activities performed.
Denison and Mishra add that when people in the organization are highly involved, the organization is more productive because they are more committed and responsible towards the organizations' interest.
But when the organization experiences a lack of involvement by people in tasks, it is difficult to respond to critical environmental change. In studies of e-government adoption and implementation researchers refer to involvement by citizens and government employees.
In this paper, however, we will only focus on the government employees and government institution involvement. Their involvement is shown in context of their willing to participate, build partnership, improve commitment, and take maximum responsibility in adoption and implementation of e-government initiatives.
Involvement of all employees and government institutions will affect the success of system development adoption in a public organization. For example, the wide range of participation in e-stamping adoption in Hong Kong has contributed to its successful implementation . On the other hand, low involvement can resulted in a lack of users' participation, commitment, and responsibility during information systems development because users' beliefs and attitude which are associated with their psychological need to be involved are not clearly formed toward the adopted system .
Journal of Asian Review of Public Affairs and Policy
Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Information Systems Journal, 15, International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4, Information Technology for Development, 15, Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 7, European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 2, Electronic Journal of E-Government, 10,
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