File Name: armies of the young child soldiers in war and terrorism file.zip
Children in the military are children defined by the Convention on the Rights of the Child as persons under the age of 18 who are associated with military organizations, such as state armed forces and non-state armed groups. Children are easy targets for military recruitment due to their greater susceptibility to influence compared to adults. Throughout history and in many cultures, children have been extensively involved in military campaigns.
- Sierra Leone’s Child Soldiers: War Exposures and Mental Health Problems by Gender
- Child Soldiers: From Recruitment to Reintegration
- History of children in the military
- Children in the military
This article follows a criminal investigation for recruitment of child soldiers, by asking the following questions: how does one find child soldiers? How does one bring them onto the judicial stage? The article explores the different moments that marked the investigation by the Office of the Prosecutor in the first case brought before the International Criminal Court in The Hague, that of Thomas Lubanga Dyilo.
Children in the military are children defined by the Convention on the Rights of the Child as people under the age of 18 who are associated with military organisations, such as state armed forces and non-state armed groups. Children are easy targets for military recruitment due to their greater susceptibility to influence compared to adults. Child recruits who survive armed conflict frequently suffer psychiatric illness, poor literacy and numeracy , and behavioral problems such as heightened aggression , leading to a high risk of poverty and unemployment in adulthood. A number of treaties have sought to curb the participation of children in armed conflicts. According to Child Soldiers International these agreements have helped to reduce child recruitment,  but the practice remains widespread and children continue to participate in hostilities around the world.
Sierra Leone’s Child Soldiers: War Exposures and Mental Health Problems by Gender
Children in the military are children defined by the Convention on the Rights of the Child as people under the age of 18 who are associated with military organisations, such as state armed forces and non-state armed groups. Children are easy targets for military recruitment due to their greater susceptibility to influence compared to adults. Child recruits who survive armed conflict frequently suffer psychiatric illness, poor literacy and numeracy , and behavioral problems such as heightened aggression , leading to a high risk of poverty and unemployment in adulthood.
A number of treaties have sought to curb the participation of children in armed conflicts. According to Child Soldiers International these agreements have helped to reduce child recruitment,  but the practice remains widespread and children continue to participate in hostilities around the world. History is filled with children who have been trained and used for fighting, assigned to support roles such as porters or messengers, used as sex slaves , or recruited for tactical advantage as human shields or for political advantage in propaganda.
Since the adoption in of the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict OPAC the global trend has been towards restricting armed forces recruitment to adults aged 18 or over, known as the Straight standard. Nonetheless, Child Soldiers International reported in that children under the age of 18 were still being recruited and trained for military purposes in 46 countries;  of these, most recruit from age 17, fewer than 20 recruit from age 16, and an unknown, smaller number, recruit younger children.
These include non-state armed Paramilitary organisations, using children such as militias , insurgents , terrorist organizations , guerrilla movements , ideologically or religiously-driven groups, armed liberation movements , and other types of quasi-military organisation.
Not all armed groups use children and approximately 60 have entered agreements to reduce or end the practice since In P. Singer of the Brookings Institution estimated that child soldiers participate in about three-quarters of ongoing conflicts. Today, due to the widespread military use of children in areas where armed conflict and insecurity prevent access by UN officials and other third parties, it is difficult to estimate how many children are affected.
Despite children's physical and psychological underdevelopment relative to adults, there are many reasons why state- and non-state military organisations seek them out. Cited examples include:. While some children are forcibly recruited, deceived, or bribed into joining military organisations, others join of their own volition. In a study of children in military organisations around the world, Rachel Brett and Irma Specht pointed to a complex of factors that incentivise enlisting, particularly:.
The following testimony from a child recruited by the Cambodian armed forces in the s is typical of many children's motivations for joining up:. I joined because my parents lacked food and I had no school I was worried about mines but what can we do—it's an order [to go to the front line ]. Once somebody stepped on a mine in front of me—he was wounded and died I was with the radio at the time, about 60 metres away. I was sitting in my hammock and saw him die I see young children in every unit I'm sure I'll be a soldier for at least a couple of more years.
If I stop being a soldier I won't have a job to do because I don't have any skills. I don't know what I'll do Since the Machel Report further research has shown that child recruits who survive armed conflict face a markedly elevated risk of debilitating psychiatric illness, poor literacy and numeracy, and behavioural problems.
Further harm is caused when armed forces and groups detain child recruits, according to Human Rights Watch. Lawyers and relatives are frequently banned from any court hearing. Other research has found that the enlistment of children, including older children, has a detrimental impact even when they are not used in armed conflict until they reach adulthood. Military academics in the US have characterized military training at all ages as "intense indoctrination" in conditions of sustained stress, the primary purpose of which is to establish the unconditional and immediate obedience of recruits.
Military settings are also characterised by elevated rates of bullying and sexual harassment. Military recruitment practices have also been found to exploit the vulnerabilities of children in mid-adolescence.
Specifically, evidence from Germany,  the UK    and the US    has shown that recruiters disproportionately target children from poorer backgrounds using marketing that omits the risks and restrictions of military life.
Some academics have argued that marketing of this kind capitalises on the psychological susceptibility in mid-adolescence to emotionally-driven decision-making. The Convention on the Rights of the Child defines a child as any person under the age of The Paris Principles define a child associated with an armed force or group as:.
The document is approved by the United Nations General Assembly. It does not only refer to a child who is taking or has taken a direct part in hostilities.
This is now recognised as a war crime. Most states with armed forces are also bound by the higher standards of the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict OPAC and the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention , which forbid the compulsory recruitment of those under the age of In addition, OPAC forbids non-state armed groups from recruiting children under any circumstances, although the legal force of this is uncertain.
The highest standard in the world is set by the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child ,  which forbids state armed forces from recruiting children under the age of 18 under any circumstances.
Most African states have ratified the Charter. States that are not a party to OPAC are subject to the lower standards set by Protocol I of the Geneva Conventions , which allows armed forces to use children over the age of fifteen in hostilities, and possibly to use younger children who have volunteered as spotters, observers, and message-carriers: .
The Parties to the conflict shall take all feasible measures so that children who have not attained the age of fifteen years do not take a direct part in hostilities and, in particular, they shall refrain from recruiting them into their armed forces. In recruiting among those who have attained the age of fifteen years but who have not attained the age of eighteen, the Parties to the conflict shall endeavor to prioritize those who are oldest.
The International Committee of the Red Cross had proposed that the Parties to the conflict should "take all necessary measures", which became in the final text, "take all feasible measures", which is not a total prohibition because feasible is understood as meaning "capable of being done, accomplished or carried out, possible or practicable". However, Article 4. OPAC requires governments to demobilise children within their jurisdiction who have been recruited or used in hostilities and to provide assistance for their physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration.
To accommodate the proper disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration of former members of armed groups, the United Nations started the Integrated DDR Standards in Opinion is currently divided over whether children should be prosecuted for war crimes. However, the Paris Principles state that children who participate in armed conflict should be regarded first as victims, even if they may also be perpetrators:.
They must be treated by international law in a framework of restorative justice and social rehabilitation, consistent with international law which offers children special protection through numerous agreements and principles.
This principle was reflected in the Court's statute, which did not rule out prosecution but emphasised the need to rehabilitate and reintegrate former child soldiers. David Crane , the first Chief Prosecutor of the Sierra Leone tribunal, interpreted the statute in favour of prosecuting those who had recruited children, rather than the children themselves, no matter how heinous the crimes they had committed.
In the US, prosecutors charged Omar Khadr , a Canadian, for offences they allege he committed in Afghanistan while under the age of 16 and fighting for the Taliban against US forces. As of , Khadr was appealing his US conviction as a war criminal. Children's rights advocates were left frustrated after the final text of the convention on the Rights of the Child did not prohibit the military recruitment of all children under the age of 18, and they began to call for a new treaty to achieve this goal.
Clearly one of the most urgent priorities is to remove everyone under 18 years of age from armed forces. Meanwhile, the UN Commission on Human Rights established a working group to negotiate a treaty to raise standards with regard to the use of children for military purposes. The UN has identified 14 countries where children have been widely used as soldiers. The use of child soldiers spans the globe.
In an article for the Middle East Institute , the authors Mick Mulroy , Zack Baddorf and Eric Oehlerich, all former military and special operations, state that this issue of child soldiers happens in many locations where the world's superpowers have deployed their own military forces. Therefore, "those superpowers have a responsibility to help end this practice of child exploitation".
The United Nations Security Council convenes regularly to debate, receive reports, and pass resolutions under the heading "Children in armed conflict". The first resolution on the issue, Resolution , was passed in The Secretary-General publishes an annual report on children and armed conflict. In United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon raised the issue of children in conflict areas who are involved in violent activities according to the Extreme Measures report.
This section covers the use of children for military purposes today. For historical cases, see History of children in the military. In , the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs estimated that up to half of children involved with state armed forces and non-state armed groups worldwide were in Africa. The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child , which has been ratified by most African states, prohibits all military recruitment of children aged under International efforts to reduce the number of children in military organisations in Africa began with the Cape Town Principles and Best Practices, developed in In , the Free Children from War conference in Paris produced the Paris Principles, which refined and updated the Cape Town Principles, applied them globally, and outlined a practical approach to reintegrating current child soldiers.
The use of children by armed groups in the Central African Republic has historically been common. In May at the Forum de Bangui a meeting of government, parliament, armed groups, civil society, and religious leaders , a number of armed groups agreed to demobilize thousands of children.
In a measure of stability returned to the Central African Republic and, according to the United Nations, 2, boys and 1, girls were officially separated from armed groups. Thousands of children serve in the military of the Democratic Republic of the Congo DRC , as well as in various rebel militias. It has been estimated that at the height of the Second Congo War more than 30, children were fighting with various parties to the conflict.
It was claimed in the film Kony that the Lord's Resistance Army recruited this number. Currently, the DRC has one of the highest proportions of child soldiers in the world. The international court has passed judgment on these practices during the war. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo , one of the warlords in the DRC, has been sentenced to 14 years in prison because of his role in the recruitment of child soldiers between and The children were forced to fight in the armed conflict in Ituri.
A report published by the Child Soldiers International in estimated that , children had been recruited into the country's militias against their will since Al-Shabaab accounted for seventy percent of this recruitment, and the Somali National Army was also recruiting children. In approximately 17, children were being used by the state armed forces and non-state armed groups.
In , children were also recruited from refugee camps in Chad, and thousands were used in the conflict in Darfur. In , the Guardian reported multiple human rights violations by the National Youth Service , a state-sponsored youth militia in Zimbabwe. In the government of Bolivia acknowledged that children as young as 14 may have been forcibly conscripted into the armed forces during recruitment sweeps. In Canada, people may join the reserve component of the Canadian Forces at age 16 with parental permission, and the regular component at 17 years of age, also with parental permission.
They may not volunteer for a tour of duty until reaching age In the Colombian armed conflict , from the mids to present, one fourth of non-state combatants have been and still are under 18 years old. In Colombia ranked fourth in the world for the greatest use of child soldiers.
There are currently 11,—14, children in armed groups in the country. In negotiations with the government, armed groups have offered to stop the recruitment of minors as a bargaining chip, but they have not honoured these offers. In a Human Rights Watch press release indicated that 30 percent of some guerrilla units were made up of children and up to 85 percent of some of the militias, which are considered to serve as a "training ground for future guerrilla fighters", had child soldiers  In the same press release it was estimated that some of the government-linked paramilitary units consisted of up to 50 percent children, including some as young as 8 years old.
Child Soldiers: From Recruitment to Reintegration
While we are building a new and improved webshop, please click below to purchase this content via our partner CCC and their Rightfind service. You will need to register with a RightFind account to finalise the purchase. Objective The main objectives of Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy PEPS are: - to further research in Peace Science and Peace Economics, - to expose the scholarly community to innovative peace-related research, - to disseminate the study of peace economics to a wider audience. In line with Peace Science tradition, PEPS welcomes contributions from an interdisciplinary community of scholars from a variety of disciplines including economics, political science, regional science, mathematics, and history, among others. Given the fact that the journal is online, authors are not asked to limit themselves to a set word or page count for full-length papers. Letters generally do not exceed 2, words in length, exclusive of equations, graphs, and figures.
Concern is growing about the increasing use of child soldiers in armed conflicts around the world. We need to ask why children join armies. If we are to prevent children fighting we need to understand the conditions under which children become soldiers and work to improve these conditions. One such context, that of Sri Lanka, may shed some light on the issues. The reasons why children become fighters can be categorised into push and pull factors. The use of push-pull categorisation has been used recently in relation to child labour by the International Labour Organization see www.
Currently, an estimated , children under the age of 18 are involved in military forces or armed rebel groups worldwide. In recent years, research has investigated the roles of women and girls in at least 20 conflicts, including the war in Sierra Leone. Research suggests that in the aftermath of war, girls are confronted with gender-specific physical and psychological challenges. Within strongly patriarchal post-conflict societies, female CAAFAG are frequently expected to resume traditional gender roles rather than seek broader opportunities. Given these particularly harsh adversities, it is likely that returning female CAAFAG are at greater risk of developing psychological or adjustment problems. Females affected by war-related trauma have demonstrated higher rates of psychosocial distress compared to males [ 20 ], and research suggests that females are more vulnerable to depression [ 21 ] and post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , especially during adolescence. In a recent study of child soldiers in Nepal, researchers found gender differences in the association between violence exposure and mental health outcomes and postulated that unmeasured, gender-sensitive variables such as rape and stigma, which were not measured, may have played an explanatory role.
Armies of the Young. Child Soldiers in. War and Terrorism. DAVID M. ROSEN. Cindy Dell Clark, In Sickness and in Play: Children Coping with Chronic Illness.
History of children in the military
The Use of Children as Soldiers in Africa A country analysis of child recruitment and participation in armed conflict. The purpose of this report is to document and assess the extent of the military recruitment of African children and their use as soldiers in armed conflict. In particular, the report provides details of national legislation governing recruitment into the armed forces, national recruitment practice which, sadly, does not always conform to the prevailing legislation , and, where armed conflict is ongoing, the extent of child participation in hostilities, whether as part of government armed forces, government-sponsored armed groups or militia, or non-governmental armed groups or militia.
Водитель отказался его впустить. Машина была оплачена человеком в очках в тонкой металлической оправе, и он должен был его дождаться. Беккер оглянулся и, увидев, как Халохот бежит по залу аэропорта с пистолетом в руке, бросил взгляд на свою стоящую на тротуаре веспу.
- Туда и обратно.
Children in the military
Завладеть персональными кодами компьютеров Третьего узла было проще простого. У всех терминалов были совершенно одинаковые клавиатуры. Как-то вечером Хейл захватил свою клавиатуру домой и вставил в нее чип, регистрирующий все удары по клавишам. На следующее утро, придя пораньше, он подменил чужую клавиатуру на свою, модифицированную, а в конце дня вновь поменял их местами и просмотрел информацию, записанную чипом. И хотя в обычных обстоятельствах пришлось бы проверять миллионы вариантов, обнаружить личный код оказалось довольно просто: приступая к работе, криптограф первым делом вводил пароль, отпирающий терминал. Поэтому от Хейла не потребовалось вообще никаких усилий: личные коды соответствовали первым пяти ударам по клавиатуре. Какая ирония, думал он, глядя в монитор Сьюзан.
Девушка засмеялась: - Это же чудо-маркер. Я чуть кожу не содрала, пытаясь его стереть. Да и краска вонючая. Беккер посмотрел внимательнее. В свете ламп дневного света он сумел разглядеть под красноватой припухлостью смутные следы каких-то слов, нацарапанных на ее руке. - Но глаза… твои глаза, - сказал Беккер, чувствуя себя круглым дураком.
Над Форт-Мидом высоко в небе сияла луна, и серебристый свет падал в окно, лишь подчеркивая спартанскую меблировку. Что же я делаю. - подумал Бринкерхофф. Мидж подошла к принтеру и, забрав распечатку очередности задач, попыталась просмотреть ее в темноте. - Ничего не вижу, - пожаловалась. - Включи свет.
Table of contents
Тридцать лет отдал он служению своей стране. Этот день должен был стать днем его славы, его piece de resistance, итогом всей его жизни - днем открытия черного хода во всемирный стандарт криптографии. А вместо этого он заразил вирусом главный банк данных Агентства национальной безопасности. И этот вирус уже невозможно остановить - разве что вырубить электроэнергию и тем самым стереть миллиарды бит ценнейшей информации. Спасти ситуацию может только кольцо, и если Дэвид до сих пор его не нашел… - Мы должны выключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ! - Сьюзан решила взять дело в свои руки. - Я спущусь вниз, в подсобное помещение, и выключу рубильник. Стратмор медленно повернулся.
Все в комнате оставили свои занятия и смотрели на огромный экран и на Дэвида Беккера.
Как ты могла догадаться, - продолжал он, - вскоре я собираюсь выйти в отставку. Но я хотел уйти с высоко поднятой головой. Я хотел уйти с сознанием, что добился своей цели. - Но вы добились своей цели, - словно со стороны услышала Сьюзан собственный голос, - Вы создали ТРАНСТЕКСТ. Казалось, Стратмор ее не слышал.