Max Stirner The Ego And Its Own Pdf

File Name: max stirner the ego and its own .zip
Size: 11847Kb
Published: 24.06.2021

Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read.

Journal of the History of Philosophy

It presents a post-Hegelian critique of Christianity and traditional morality on one hand; and on the other, humanism , utilitarianism , liberalism , and much of the then-burgeoning socialist movement, advocating instead an amoral although importantly not inherently immoral or antisocial egoism.

It is considered a major influence on the development of anarchism , existentialism , nihilism , and postmodernism. In , John F. Welsh coined the term dialectical egoism for the thoughts of Stirner expressed in this work, in order to emphasize the distinction from the negative and pejorative connotations from the common everyday use of egoism in the sense of egotism.

The first part of the text begins by setting out a tripartite dialectical structure based on an individual's stages of life Childhood, Youth and Adulthood. Upon reaching the stage of youth, they begin to learn how to overcome these restrictions by what Stirner calls the "self-discovery of mind". However, in the idealistic stage, a youth now becomes enslaved by internal forces such as conscience, reason and other "spooks" or "fixed ideas" of the mind including religion , nationalism and other ideologies.

The final stage, "egoism", is the second self-discovery, in which one becomes self-conscious of oneself as more than his mind or body. Throughout the book, Stirner applies this dialectical structure to human history. Part one is a sustained critique of the first two periods of human history and especially of the failure of the Modern world to escape from religious modes of thinking.

Stirner's analysis is opposed to the belief that modern individuals are progressively more free than their predecessors. Stirner's critique of modernity is centred on the Protestant Reformation. According to Stirner, Reformation theology extended religious domination over individuals by blurring the distinction between the sensual and the spiritual thus allowing priests to marry for example.

The Reformation also strengthened and intensified religious belief and made it more personal, creating an internal conflict between natural desires and religious conscience. Thus the Reformation only served to further enslave Europeans under spiritual ideology.

Stirner's critique of a progressive view of history is part of his attack on the philosophies of the left Hegelians , especially that of Ludwig Feuerbach. Stirner sees Feuerbach's philosophy as merely a continuation of religious ways of thinking. Feuerbach had argued that Christianity was mistaken in taking human qualities and projecting them into a transcendent God.

But according to Stirner, Feuerbach's philosophy, while rejecting a God, left the Christian qualities intact. Feuerbach had taken a set of human qualities and deified them, making them the only prescriptive view of humanity.

This became just another religion for Stirner, a "change of masters" over the individual. For Stirner, "human nature" cannot provide any prescriptions on how one ought to live as one doesn't need to become his nature, but instead he already is "Your nature is, once for all, a human one; you are human natures, human beings.

But, just because you already are so, you do not still need to become so". Part two is centered on the possibility of freedom from current ideological ways of thinking through a robust philosophical egoism.

Stirner's egoism is centered on what he calls Eigenheit 'Ownness' or autonomy. This 'Ownness' is a feature of a more advanced stage of human personal and historical development. It is the groundwork for our world-view. Stirner's Egoism is a descriptive psychological egoist , though he differentiates between conscious and involuntary egoism. But is sensuality then the whole of my ownness?

Am I in my own senses when I am given up to sensuality? Stirner's conception of Ownness is a type of self-description: "Ownness includes in itself everything own, and brings to honor again what Christian language dishonored.

But ownness has not any alien standard either, as it is not in any sense an idea like freedom, morality, humanity, etc. Stirner formulates the criticism of the State on basis of it inheriting God, but is not principally opposed to the State: "For example, when he writes "therefore we two, the State and I are enemies. I, the egoist, have not at heart the welfare of this "human society". I sacrifice nothing to it, I only utilize it; but to be able to utilize it I transform it rather into my property and my creature; that is I annihilate it and form in its place the Union Of Egoists", it appears to me that he is not here claiming that he wants to literally destroy the State as an institution, but as an idea, a sacred principle.

Otherwise, what point would there be in seeking to utilize the "human society" of the State if one is going to abolish it? You cannot use something which no longer exists. Indeed, Stirner himself bears this out when he states "only when the State comes into contact with his ownness does the egoist take any active interest in it. If the condition of the State does not bear hard upon the scholar, is he to occupy himself with it because it is his "most sacred duty"?

So long as the State does according to his wishes what need has he to look up from his studies? Further in Part II, Stirner discards the concept of freedom and replaces it with power and property. In the chapter "My Self-Enjoyment" Stirner discusses longing and "true life", discarding both of them preferring a "non-seeking" man: "Not till I am certain of myself, and no longer seeking for myself, am I really my property; I have myself, therefore I use and enjoy myself.

Stirner repeatedly quotes Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , Friedrich Schiller and Bruno Bauer assuming that readers will be familiar with their works. He also paraphrases and makes word-plays and in-jokes on formulations found in Hegel 's works as well as in the works of his contemporaries such as Ludwig Feuerbach.

This can make the book more demanding for contemporary readers. In Engels sent a letter to Marx praising "the noble Stirner" and suggesting that his dialectical Egoism can serve as a point of departure for communism:. It is certainly true that we must first make a cause our own, egoistic cause, before we can do anything to further it. However, Marx and Engels would later collaborate on a lengthy criticism of Stirner's book in The German Ideology , published The critique is a polemical tirade filled with ad hominem attacks and insults against Stirner Marx calls him a "petty bourgeois individualist intellectual".

Stirner also had a lasting influence in the tradition of Individualist Anarchism. American Individualist Benjamin R. Tucker , editor of the Journal Liberty , adopted Stirner's Egoism in while rejecting conceptions of natural rights. Walker and John Beverly Robinson and the proponents of natural rights anarchism such as that of Lysander Spooner. Although initially influenced by american individualist anarchist, S.

He who destroyes a good Booke, kills reason it selfe , a exhibition by University of Kansas Library noted the following regarding the book's initial publication:.

Its frank espousal of anarchistic egoism led to the not unexpected announcement in the newspapers of Saxony that the book had been immediately confiscated in Leipzig. Anxious not to be outdone, where usually they were so far ahead, Prussia banned the book. Then, Berlin received more accurate news: the book had not been banned in Saxony at all. In fact, the book's farfetched overstatement was regarded at Dresden as its own best antidote.

The small states of Germany fell into line, on one side or the other, often with considerable difficulty owing to the scarcity of copies to examine first. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In Zalta, Edward N.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow. Liverpool University Press, , p. Zalta ed. Byington ed. Max Stirner's Dialectical Egoism, A new interpretation; p. Lexington Books, Max Stirner's Dialectical Egoism, A new interpretation; pp. Institute for Human Studies. Autumn , VOL. IV, NO. Ardent Press. The Egoist. Boyer and Stephen Marletta".

University of Kansas Library. Archived from the original on The Ego and Its Own. Max Stirner. Egoist anarchism Existentialist anarchism Individualist anarchism Insurrectionary anarchism Post-anarchism Post-left anarchy Psychological egoism.

Categories : non-fiction books Books critical of religion Egoist anarchism Individualist anarchism Max Stirner Modern philosophical literature Philosophy books Philosophy of religion literature Works published under a pseudonym. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.

Download as PDF Printable version. Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Ego and Its Own.

The ego and his own

Max Stirner — is the author of Der Einzige und sein Eigenthum Stirner was born Johann Caspar Schmidt on 25 October , the only child of lower middle class Lutheran parents living in Bayreuth. His father died when Stirner was only six months old, and he was brought up by his mother who subsequently remarried and then later, when his mother moved from Bayreuth, by an aunt who looked after him in order that he could continue his schooling at the renowned local Gymnasium. At Berlin, he is known to have attended three lecture-series given by G. In , he returned with his mother to Berlin, and sought, with qualified success, to train as a teacher. A period of private study and irregular work followed, including eighteenth months working unpaid as an Latin teacher.


Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg.


Max Stirner

Steven T. Byington, ed. Benjamin R.

First Part: Man. A Human Life. Men of the Old Time and the New.

Access options available:. The old necessity forced upon students of Leibniz to search for needles in the enormous haystacks of his writings is destined to end. One year later, they had finished a long and hectic reply to this anarchist classic, The German Ideology. This was neither the first nor the last response to Stirner's provocative masterwork.

It presents a post-Hegelian critique of Christianity and traditional morality on one hand; and on the other, humanism , utilitarianism , liberalism , and much of the then-burgeoning socialist movement, advocating instead an amoral although importantly not inherently immoral or antisocial egoism. It is considered a major influence on the development of anarchism , existentialism , nihilism , and postmodernism. In , John F. Welsh coined the term dialectical egoism for the thoughts of Stirner expressed in this work, in order to emphasize the distinction from the negative and pejorative connotations from the common everyday use of egoism in the sense of egotism.

Он слишком долго говорил ей полуправду: просто есть вещи, о которых она ничего не знала, и он молил Бога, чтобы не узнала. - Прости меня, - сказал он, стараясь говорить как можно мягче.  - Расскажи, что с тобой случилось.

5 Response
  1. Zerbino G.

    Insurgent ebook free download pdf guide to tcp ip ipv6 and ipv4 5th edition pdf free download

  2. Desiderius C.

    Max Stirner The Ego and His Own A Reproduction of the First English Edition. Translated from the German by Steven T. Byington. With an Introduction by.

Leave a Reply