Islamic Science And The Making Of The European Renaissance Pdf

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Islamic scientific achievements encompassed a wide range of subject areas, especially astronomy , mathematics , and medicine. Other subjects of scientific inquiry included alchemy and chemistry , botany and agronomy , geography and cartography , ophthalmology , pharmacology , physics , and zoology. Medieval Islamic science had practical purposes as well as the goal of understanding. For example, astronomy was useful for determining the Qibla , the direction in which to pray, botany had practical application in agriculture, as in the works of Ibn Bassal and Ibn al-'Awwam , and geography enabled Abu Zayd al-Balkhi to make accurate maps. Islamic doctors described diseases like smallpox and measles , and challenged classical Greek medical theory.

islamic science and the making of the european renaissance pdf

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Series: Transformations M. In this thought-provoking and original book, George Saliba argues that, contrary to the generally accepted view, the foundations of Islamic scientific thought were laid well before Greek sources were formally translated into Arabic in the ninth century. Drawing on an account by the tenth-century intellectual historian Ibn al-Nadim that is ignored by most modern scholars, Saliba suggests that early translations from mainly Persian and Greek sources outlining elementary scientific ideas for the use of government departments were the impetus for the development of the Islamic scientific tradition.

He argues further that there was an organic relationship between the Islamic scientific thought that developed in later centuries and the science that came into being in Europe during the Renaissance. Read more Show all links. Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Islamic science and the making of the European Renaissance. Cambridge, Mass. Reviews User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers.

Be the first. Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Islam and science. Science, Medieval. Civilization, Western -- Islamic influences. Islamic countries. Renaissance Wissenschaft Astronomie Islam Wetenschap. Europa geografie Europa. All rights reserved. Remember me on this computer. Cancel Forgot your password? George Saliba. Transformations M. Science -- Islamic countries -- History. View all subjects.

User lists Similar Items. Print version: Saliba, George. George Saliba Find more information about: George Saliba. The Islamic scientific tradition : question of beginnings I -- The Islamic scientific tradition : question of beginnings II -- Encounter with the Greek scientific tradition -- Islamic astronomy defines itself : the critical innovations -- Science between philosophy and religion : the case of astronomy -- Islamic science and Renaissance Europe : the Copernican connection -- Age of decline : the fecundity of astronomical thought.

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Islamic world contributions to Medieval Europe

The rise and fall of the Islamic scientific tradition, and the relationship of Islamic science to European science during the Renaissance. The Islamic scientific tradition has been described many times in accounts of Islamic civilization and general histories of science, with most authors tracing its beginnings to the appropriation of ideas from other ancient civilizations—the Greeks in particular. In this thought-provoking and original book, George Saliba argues that, contrary to the generally accepted view, the foundations of Islamic scientific thought were laid well before Greek sources were formally translated into Arabic in the ninth century. Drawing on an account by the tenth-century intellectual historian Ibn al-Naidm that is ignored by most modern scholars, Saliba suggests that early translations from mainly Persian and Greek sources outlining elementary scientific ideas for the use of government departments were the impetus for the development of the Islamic scientific tradition. He argues further that there was an organic relationship between the Islamic scientific thought that developed in the later centuries and the science that came into being in Europe during the Renaissance. Saliba outlines the conventional accounts of Islamic science, then discusses their shortcomings and proposes an alternate narrative. Using astronomy as a template for tracing the progress of science in Islamic civilization, Saliba demonstrates the originality of Islamic scientific thought.


The Islamic scientific tradition has been described many times in accounts of Islamic civilization and general histories of science, with most authors tracing i.


Book Review: Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance

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Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance

Jamil Ragep George Saliba. Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance. ISBN: —0———7. In this provocative and engaging book, Professor George Saliba of Columbia University deals with a variety of topics, including the beginnings of science in the [End Page ] Islamic world, the early reception of Greek science, the criticisms of Greek mainly Ptolemaic astronomy and the alternative planetary models meant as correctives, the issue of astronomy and religion in Islam, the connection of Islamic astronomy with Copernicus, and the decline of Islamic science. Saliba begins with the origins of science in Islam and the translations of the extant Greek scientific and philosophical corpus into Arabic: an act of cultural appropriation that had no real precedent and remained unparalleled until fairly recent times. Even for later Muslims it represented an amazing episode, calling forth all sorts of explanations, including a caliph's dream that featured a nocturnal visit from Aristotle. Saliba reviews and critiques earlier explanations in a masterful way, pointing out that previous reconstructions —which he collectively refers to as the "classical narrative" 1 —all suffer from various degrees of implausibility.

During the high medieval period , the Islamic world was at its cultural peak , supplying information and ideas to Europe , via Al-Andalus , Sicily and the Crusader kingdoms in the Levant. These included Latin translations of the Greek Classics and of Arabic texts in astronomy , mathematics , science , and medicine. Translation of Arabic philosophical texts into Latin "led to the transformation of almost all philosophical disciplines in the medieval Latin world", with a particularly strong influence of Muslim philosophers being felt in natural philosophy, psychology and metaphysics. The Islamic world also influenced other aspects of medieval European culture, partly by original innovations made during the Islamic Golden Age , including various fields such as the arts , agriculture , alchemy , music , pottery , etc. Many Arabic loanwords in Western European languages, including English , mostly via Old French, date from this period. Europe and the Islamic lands had multiple points of contact during the Middle Ages. The main points of transmission of Islamic knowledge to Europe lay in Sicily and in Spain , particularly in Toledo with Gerard of Cremone , —, following the conquest of the city by Spanish Christians in

Science in the medieval Islamic world

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According to medieval scientists, matter was composed of four elements—earth, air, fire, and water—whose combinations and permutations made up the world of visible objects. The cosmos was a series of concentric spheres in motion, the farther ones carrying the stars around in their daily courses. At the centre was the globe of Earth, heavy and static. Motion was either perfectly circular, as in the heavens, or irregular and naturally downward, as on Earth. The Earth had three landmasses—Europe, Asia, and Africa—and was unknown and uninhabitable in its southern zones. The cosmos was alive with a universal consciousness with which people could interact in various ways, and the heavenly bodies were generally believed to influence human character and events, although theologians worried about free will. These views were an amalgam of Classical and Christian thought and, from what can be inferred from written sources, shaped the way educated people experienced and interpreted phenomena.

Он успел выскользнуть до того, как Стратмор захлопнул крышку люка, и ему хватило сил самому открыть двери. Сьюзан приходилось слышать, что сильный страх парализует тело, - теперь она в этом убедилась. Ее мозг мгновенно осознал происходящее, и она, вновь обретя способность двигаться, попятилась назад в темноте с одной только мыслью - бежать. И сразу же услышала треск.

Когда он бывал раздражен, а это было почти всегда, его черные глаза горели как угли. Он поднялся по служебной лестнице до высшего поста в агентстве потому, что работал не покладая рук, но также и благодаря редкой целеустремленности и заслуженному уважению со стороны своих предшественников. Он был первым афроамериканцем на посту директора Агентства национальной безопасности, но эту его отличительную черту никто никогда даже не упоминал, потому что политическая партия, которую он поддерживал, решительно не принимала этого во внимание, и его коллеги следовали этому примеру. Фонтейн заставил Мидж и Бринкерхоффа стоять, пока сам он молча совершал свой обычный ритуал заваривания кофе сорта Гватемальская ява.

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