Identify The Important Aesthetic And Intellectual Traditions Lesson Pdf

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Popular music is widely assumed to be different in kind from the serious music or art music that, until very recently, monopolized attention in philosophical discussions of music. In recent years, however, popular music has become an important topic for philosophers pursuing either of two projects. First, popular music receives attention from philosophers who see it as a test case for prevailing philosophies of music.

From Thales, who is often considered the first Western philosopher, to the Stoics and Skeptics, ancient Greek philosophy opened the doors to a particular way of thinking that provided the roots for the Western intellectual tradition. Here, there is often an explicit preference for the life of reason and rational thought. We find proto-scientific explanations of the natural world in the Milesian thinkers, and we hear Democritus posit atoms—indivisible and invisible units—as the basic stuff of all matter.

The Philosophy of Dance

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The preceding chapter explored implications of research on learning for general issues relevant to the design of effective learning environments. We now move to a more detailed exploration of teaching and learning in three disciplines: history, mathematics, and science.

We chose these three areas in order to focus on the similarities and differences of disciplines that use different methods of inquiry and analysis. A major goal of our discussion is to explore the knowledge required to teach effectively in a diversity of disciplines.

We noted in Chapter 2 that expertise in particular areas involves more than a set of general problem-solving skills; it also requires well-organized knowledge of concepts and inquiry procedures. Different disciplines are organized differently and have different approaches to inquiry. For example, the evidence needed to support a set of historical claims is different from the evidence needed to prove a mathematical conjecture, and both of these differ from the evidence needed to test a scientific theory.

Discussion in Chapter 2 also differentiated between expertise in a discipline and the ability to help others learn about that discipline.

Pedagogical content knowledge is different from knowledge of general teaching methods. In short, their knowledge of the discipline and their knowledge of pedagogy interact. But knowledge of the discipline structure does not in itself guide the teacher.

For example, expert teachers are sensitive to those aspects of the discipline that are especially hard or easy for new students to master.

These conceptual barriers differ from discipline to discipline. An emphasis on interactions between disciplinary knowledge and pedagogical knowledge directly contradicts common misconceptions about what teachers need to know in order to design effective learning environments for their students.

The misconceptions are that teaching consists only of a set of general methods, that a good teacher can teach any subject, or that content knowledge alone is sufficient. Some teachers are able to teach in ways that involve a variety of disciplines. However, their ability to do so requires more than a set of general teaching skills. Consider the case of Barb Johnson, who has been a sixth-grade teacher for 12 years at Monroe Middle School.

By conventional standards Monroe is a good school. Standardized test scores are about average, class size is small, the building facilities are well maintained, the administrator is a strong instructional leader, and there is little faculty and staff turnover. What happens in her classroom that gives it the reputation of being the best of the best?

After the students list their individual questions, Barb organizes the students into small groups where they share lists and search for questions they have in common. After much discussion each group comes up with a priority list of questions, rank-ordering the questions about themselves and those about the world.

The students had the opportunity to seek out information from family members, friends, experts in various fields, on-line computer services, and books, as well as from the teacher. Sometimes we fall short of our goal. At the end of an investigation, Barb Johnson works with the students to help them see how their investigations relate to conventional subject-matter areas.

They create a chart on which they tally experiences in language and literacy, mathematics, science, social studies and history, music, and art. Students often are surprised at how much and how varied their learning is. It would not work to simply arm new teachers with general strategies that mirror how she teaches and encourage them to use this approach in their classrooms. Unless they have the relevant disciplinary knowledge, the teachers and the classes would quickly become lost.

At the same time, disciplinary knowledge without knowledge about how students learn i. In the remainder of this chapter, we present illustrations and discussions of exemplary teaching in history, mathematics, and science. The three examples of history, mathematics, and science are designed to convey a sense of the pedagogical knowledge and content knowledge Shulman, that underlie expert teaching.

Most people have had quite similar experiences with history courses: they learned the facts and dates that the teacher and the text deemed relevant. This view of history is radically different from the way that historians see their work. Students who think that history is about facts and dates miss exciting opportunities to understand how history is a discipline that is guided by particular rules of evidence and how particular analytical skills can be relevant for understanding events in their lives see Ravitch and Finn, Unfortunately, many teachers do not present an exciting approach to history, perhaps because they, too, were taught in the dates-facts method.

In Chapter 2 , we discussed a study of experts in the field of history and learned that they regard the available evidence as more than lists of facts Wineburg, The study contrasted a group of gifted high school seniors with a group of working historians. Both groups were given a test of facts about the American Revolution taken from the chapter review section of a popular United States history textbook. The historians who had backgrounds in American history knew most of the items, while historians whose specialties lay elsewhere knew only a third of the test facts.

Several students scored higher than some historians on the factual pretest. In addition to the test of facts, however, the historians and students were presented with a set of historical documents and asked to sort out competing claims and to formulate reasoned interpretations. The historians excelled at this task. Most students, on the other hand, were stymied. Despite the volume of historical information the students possessed, they had little sense of how to use it productively for forming interpretations of events or for reaching conclusions.

Different views of history affect how teachers teach history. Consider the different types of feedback that Mr. Barnes and Ms. Kelsey gave a student paper; see Box 7. Overall, Mr.

Barnes saw the papers as an indication of the bell-shaped distribution of abilities; Ms. Kelsey saw them as representing the misconception that history is about memorizing a mass of information and recounting a series of facts. These two teachers had very different ideas about the nature of learning history. Those ideas affected how they taught and what they wanted their students to achieve. For expert history teachers, their knowledge of the discipline and beliefs about its structure interact with their teaching strategies.

Rather than simply introduce students to sets of facts to be learned, these teachers help people to understand the problematic nature of historical interpretation and analysis and to appreciate the relevance of history for their everyday lives. One example of outstanding history teaching comes from the classroom of Bob Bain, a public school teacher in Beechwood, Ohio.

Historians, he notes, are cursed with an abundance of data—the traces of the past threaten to overwhelm them unless they find some way of separating what is important from what is peripheral. The assumptions that historians hold about significance shape how they write their histories, the data they select, and the narrative they compose, as well as the larger schemes they bring to organize and periodize the past.

Often these assumptions about historical significance remain unarticulated in the classroom. Bob Bain begins his ninth-grade high school class by having all the students create a time capsule of what they think are the most important artifacts from the past.

In this way, the students explicitly articulate their underlying assumptions of what constitutes historical significance. At first, students apply the rules rigidly and algorithmically, with little understanding that just as they made the rules, they can also change them.

But as students become more practiced in plying their judgments of significance, they come to see the rules as tools for assaying the arguments of different historians, which allows them to begin to understand why historians disagree.

Leinhardt and Greeno , spent 2 years studying a highly accomplished teacher of advanced placement history in an urban high school in Pittsburgh. The teacher, Ms. BOX 7. When the French and Indian war ended, British expected Americans to help them pay back there war debts. If I had the choice between being loyal, or rebelling and having something to eat, I know what my choice would be. I think a lot of people also just were going with the flow, or were being pressured by the Sons of Liberty.

By the end of the course, students moved from being passive spectators of the past to enfranchised agents who could participate in the forms of thinking, reasoning, and engagement that are the hallmark of skilled historical cognition. For example, early in the school year, Ms. Remember that your reader is basically ignorant, so you need to express your view as clearly as you can.

Try to form your ideas from the beginning to a middle and then an end. In the middle, justify your view. What factors support your idea and will convince your reader?

By January his responses to questions about the fall of the cotton-based economy in the South were linked to British trade policy and colonial ventures in Asia, as well as to the failure of Southern leaders to read public opinion accurately in Great Britain. Elizabeth Jensen prepares her group of eleventh graders to debate the following resolution:.

Resolved: The British government possesses the legitimate authority to tax the American colonies. But today that voice is silent as her students take up the question of the legitimacy of British taxation in the American colonies. England says she keeps troops here for our own protection. On face value, this seems reasonable enough, but there is really no substance to their claims.

First of all, who do they think they are protecting us from? The French? Quoting from our friend Mr. Maybe they need to protect us from the Spanish? Yet the same war also subdued the Spanish, so they are no real worry either. In fact, the only threat to our order is the Indians…but…we have a decent militia of our own….

So why are they putting troops here? The only possible reason is to keep us in line. With more and more troops coming over, soon every freedom we hold dear will be stripped away. The great irony is that Britain expects us to pay for these vicious troops, these British squelchers of colonial justice.

We moved here, we are paying less taxes than we did for two generations in England, and you complain? But did you know that over one-half of their war debt was caused by defending us in the French and Indian War…. Yet virtual representation makes this whining of yours an untruth. Every British citizen, whether he had a right to vote or not, is represented in Parliament.

The Aesthetics of Popular Music

Aesthetics , also spelled esthetics , the philosophical study of beauty and taste. It is closely related to the philosophy of art , which is concerned with the nature of art and the concepts in terms of which individual works of art are interpreted and evaluated. To provide more than a general definition of the subject matter of aesthetics is immensely difficult. Indeed, it could be said that self-definition has been the major task of modern aesthetics. We are acquainted with an interesting and puzzling realm of experience: the realm of the beautiful, the ugly, the sublime , and the elegant; of taste, criticism , and fine art; and of contemplation, sensuous enjoyment, and charm. In all these phenomena we believe that similar principles are operative and that similar interests are engaged.

Aesthetics may be defined narrowly as the theory of beauty, or more broadly as that together with the philosophy of art. The traditional interest in beauty itself broadened, in the eighteenth century, to include the sublime, and since or so the number of pure aesthetic concepts discussed in the literature has expanded even more. Traditionally, the philosophy of art concentrated on its definition, but recently this has not been the focus, with careful analyses of aspects of art largely replacing it. Philosophical aesthetics is here considered to center on these latter-day developments. Thus, after a survey of ideas about beauty and related concepts, questions about the value of aesthetic experience and the variety of aesthetic attitudes will be addressed, before turning to matters which separate art from pure aesthetics, notably the presence of intention. The concepts of expression, representation, and the nature of art objects will then be covered. There is even now a four-volume encyclopedia devoted to the full range of possible topics.

Aesthetics

Although Science for All Americans emphasizes what students should learn, it also recognizes that how science is taught is equally important. In planning instruction, effective teachers draw on a growing body of research knowledge about the nature of learning and on craft knowledge about teaching that has stood the test of time. Typically, they consider the special characteristics of the material to be learned, the background of their students, and the conditions under which the teaching and learning are to take place. Many of those principles apply to learning and teaching in general, but clearly some are especially important in science, mathematics, and technology education. For convenience, learning and teaching are presented here in separate sections, even though they are closely interrelated.

This article assumes that it is, holding that a philosophy of something can make recourse to conversations and practices in all the domains that are relevant to what it is of in this case dance so long as doing so aids our thinking about the meaning of that domain. The potential for dance philosophy is enormous, in part because dance itself is multifaceted enough to make it connect with many branches of philosophy. Indeed, dance has been practiced throughout history for artistic, educational, therapeutic, social, political, religious and other purposes. Of course, philosophical approaches once these are identified provide just some of the many ways to approach dance in order to better understand what it is and why it matters to us. There are theories and insights offered by dance cultural theorists, sociologists, historians, educators, anthropologists, ethnographers, practitioners, dance critics, evolutionary biologists, cognitive scientists, psychologists and others, for example, that are relevant to the questions asked by philosophers but which rely primarily on the methods of analysis culled from those fields.

Ancient Greek Philosophy

Islamic philosophy is a development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from an Islamic tradition. Two terms traditionally used in the Islamic world are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa literally: "philosophy" , which refers to philosophy as well as logic , mathematics , and physics ; [1] and Kalam literally "speech" , which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic theology.

Aesthetics , also spelled esthetics , the philosophical study of beauty and taste. It is closely related to the philosophy of art , which is concerned with the nature of art and the concepts in terms of which individual works of art are interpreted and evaluated. To provide more than a general definition of the subject matter of aesthetics is immensely difficult. Indeed, it could be said that self-definition has been the major task of modern aesthetics.

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4 Response
  1. Gibert L.

    John Dewey is well known for his work in logic, scientific inquiry, and philosophy of education.

  2. Leonides G.

    In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty , distinguishing it from decorative art or applied art , which also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork.

  3. Lily B.

    Philosophy makes a central contribution to the educational enterprise through its demands upon intellectual activity.

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