Anatomy And Physiology Of The Breast Pdf

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A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in humans and other mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring. Mammals get their name from the Latin word mamma , "breast". The mammary glands are arranged in organs such as the breasts in primates for example, humans and chimpanzees , the udder in ruminants for example, cows, goats, and deer , and the dugs of other animals for example, dogs and cats. Lactorrhea , the occasional production of milk by the glands, can occur in any mammal, but in most mammals, lactation , the production of enough milk for nursing , occurs only in phenotypic females who have gestated in recent months or years. It is directed by hormonal guidance from sex steroids.

Overview of the Breast

The breasts are specialised organs, which are located on the anterior chest wall. The female breast is more developed than the male breast, as their primary function is to produce milk for nutrition of the infant and baby. There are lots of glands in our breasts, which grow and develop during puberty and maturation. Female hormones such as oestrogen and progesterone are important in promoting growth and changes that occur in the breast, especially during pregnancy and the menstrual cycle. Lying in a superficial layer of our skin above our chest muscles, the mammary glands in our breast drain via many ducts to our nipples. There is a dark, circular layer around the nipple , called the areola. It is important for women to understand the normal anatomy and function of their breasts so that any abnormalities can be detected and treated.

The breasts are paired structures located on the anterior thoracic wall, in the pectoral region. They are present in both males and females, yet are more prominent in females following puberty. In females, the breasts contain the mammary glands — an accessory gland of the female reproductive system. The mammary glands are the key structures involved in lactation. In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the breasts — their structure, innervation, vascular supply and any clinical relevance.

Breast anatomy

Over time, variations of mastectomy came up and started allowing the oncological safety and the possibility of an immediate breast reconstruction. Nipple sparing mastectomy NSM procedures have strongly increased in frequency and have become one of the best alternatives to treat breast cancer, also improving overall aesthetic outcomes and the achievement of contralateral breast symmetry. The nipple areola-complex NAC must be considered the identity of the breast concerning self-esteem of patients. This paper will remind the main anatomical topics around the nipple and breast ducts. Over time, variations of mastectomy came up and led to enhance the oncological safety and the possibility of an immediate breast reconstruction. Those techniques permit the conservation of skin, inframammary fold and specially the nipple areola complex NAC to achieve better outcomes.

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. The mammary gland is a distinguishing feature of mammals and its primary role is to produce milk to nourish offspring Figures 1. In humans, the breast has a multitude of further roles including being a major female sexual characteristic and a key part of female body image. Breast anatomy. The breast lies over the pectoralis major, serratus anterior, and rectus abdominis muscles. Normal adult breast during reproductive years: photomicrograph shows a complete terminal duct lobular unit.

Lactation is the process by which milk is synthesized and secreted from the mammary glands of the postpartum female breast in response to an infant sucking at the nipple. Breast milk provides ideal nutrition and passive immunity for the infant, encourages mild uterine contractions to return the uterus to its pre-pregnancy size i. Mammary glands are modified sweat glands. The non-pregnant and non-lactating female breast is composed primarily of adipose and collagenous tissue, with mammary glands making up a very minor proportion of breast volume. The mammary gland is composed of milk-transporting lactiferous ducts, which expand and branch extensively during pregnancy in response to estrogen, growth hormone, cortisol, and prolactin. Moreover, in response to progesterone, clusters of breast alveoli bud from the ducts and expand outward toward the chest wall. Breast alveoli are balloon-like structures lined with milk-secreting cuboidal cells, or lactocytes, that are surrounded by a net of contractile myoepithelial cells.


Request PDF | Anatomy and Physiology of the Breast | The mammary gland is classified as a branched tubuloalveolar structure with.


The Breasts

The breast is an organ whose structure reflects its special function: the production of milk for lactation breast feeding. The epithelial component of the tissue consists of lobules , where milk is made, which connect to ducts that lead out to the nipple. Most cancers of the breast arise from the cells which form the lobules and terminal ducts. These lobules and ducts are spread throughout the background fibrous tissue and adipose tissue fat that make up the majority of the breast. The male breast structure is nearly identical to the female breast, except that the male breast tissue lacks the specialized lobules, since there is no physiologic need for milk production by males.

Anatomy of the nipple and breast ducts

Руку чуть не вырвало из плечевого сустава, когда двигатель набрал полную мощность, буквально вбросив его на ступеньки.

Anatomical Structure

Экран монитора был погашен, но она понимала, что он не заперт: по краям экрана было видно свечение. Криптографы редко запирали свои компьютеры, разве что покидая Третий узел на ночь. Обычно они лишь уменьшали их яркость; кодекс чести гарантировал, что никто в их отсутствие к терминалу не прикоснется. К черту кодекс чести, - сказала она.  - Посмотрим, чем ты тут занимаешься.

Беккер повернулся и побежал, но успел сделать только один шаг. Мужчина выхватил оружие и выстрелил. Острая боль обожгла грудь Беккера и ударила в мозг. Пальцы у него онемели. Он упал.

Каждую ночь юный Танкадо смотрел на свои скрюченные пальцы, вцепившиеся в куклу Дарума note 1и клялся, что отомстит - отомстит стране, которая лишила его матери, а отца заставила бросить его на произвол судьбы. Не знал он только одного - что в его планы вмешается судьба. В феврале того года, когда Энсею исполнилось двенадцать, его приемным родителям позвонили из токийской фирмы, производящей компьютеры, и предложили их сыну-калеке принять участие в испытаниях новой клавиатуры, которую фирма сконструировала для детей с физическими недостатками. Родители согласились. Хотя Энсей Танкадо никогда прежде не видел компьютера, он как будто инстинктивно знал, как с ним обращаться. Компьютер открыл перед ним мир, о существовании которого он даже не подозревал, и вскоре заполнил всю его жизнь. Повзрослев, он начал давать компьютерные уроки, зарабатывать деньги и в конце концов получил стипендию для учебы в Университете Досися.

Какая ирония, думал он, глядя в монитор Сьюзан. Хейл похитил пароли просто так, ради забавы. Теперь же он был рад, что проделал это, потому что на мониторе Сьюзан скрывалось что-то очень важное. Задействованная ею программа была написана на языке программирования Лимбо, который не был его специальностью.

 Может.  - Сьюзан пожала плечами, демонстрируя равнодушие. - Мы с ним какое-то время переписывались, - как бы невзначай сказал Хейл.  - С Танкадо.

Ты же знаешь, что шифры, которые не поддаются, не выходят у меня из головы. Дэвид молчал. - Расскажи.  - Она надулась.  - Если не скажешь, тебе меня больше не видать.

В ее обязанности в качестве главного криптографа входило поддерживать в шифровалке мирную атмосферу - воспитывать. Особенно таких, как Хейл, - зеленых и наивных.

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    PDF | The mammary gland is an organ of ectodermal origin whose structure reflects its function: the production of milk for lactation. In humans.

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