The Relation Of Empathy To Prosocial And Related Behaviors Pdf

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The link between empathy and prosocial behavior has been the subject of empirical investigation for decades. This author presents a selective review of this work and a consideration of some of the most important theoretical issues that have arisen during this time.

The Relation of Empathy to Prosocial and Related Behaviors

Empathy-related responding, including empathy, sympathy, and personal distress, has been implicated in conceptual models and theories about prosocial behavior and altruism, aggression and antisocial behavior, and intergroup relationships. Conceptual arguments and empirical findings related to each of these topics are reviewed. Applied implications of these findings, including preventative studies, are discussed, as are possible future directions. In August, , charities were attempting to raise funds to help victims of devastating floods in Pakistan. Specifically, they speculated that the lack of generosity is partly because Pakistan is more time zones away from Canada, affecting the flow of information out of the country, and does not share a common language with Canada, as does Haiti. In additional factor, they argued, is that Pakistan is associated with the war in that part of the world.

The relation of empathy to prosocial and related behaviors

In this article, the literature relevant to this issue is reexamined. The studies were organized according to the method used to assess empathy. When appropriate, meta-analyses were computed. Several possible explanations for the pattern of findings are discussed, as are the implications of the findings. Nancy Eisenberg, Paul Miller. Overview Fingerprint.


The studies were organized according to the method used to assess empathy. When appropriate, meta-analyses were computed. In contrast to the earlier review.


Empathy: Conceptualization, measurement, and relation to prosocial behavior

Institute of Psychology, University of Tsukuba. The purpose of this study was to develop the Empathy Scale for Children ESC and to examine positive relationship between prosocial behavior and empathy measured by ESC. It was administered to fifth and sixth graders; the factor analysis revealed single-factor solution.

Empathy, sympathy, and related vicarious emotional responses are important concepts in developmental, social, and clinical psychology. The purpose of this paper is to examine conceptual and methodological issues concerning the assessment of vicarious emotional responding and to present data from a series of multimethod studies on the assessment of empathy-related reactions and their association with prosocial behavior. The findings presented are consistent with several conclusions: a In some contexts, physiological, facial, and self-report indexes can be useful markers of vicarious emotional responses, b other-oriented sympathetic responding is positively related to prosocial behavior particularly altruism whereas personal distress reactions sometimes are associated with low levels of helping, and c physiological arousal is higher for personal distress than sympathetic reactions.

Empathy: Conceptualization, measurement, and relation to prosocial behavior

This research explored the influence of empathic distress on prosocial behavior in a resource allocation task with children. Children were randomly assigned to one of two conditions before engaging in a sticker sharing task; watching either a video of a girl upset that her dog had gone missing emotion induction condition , or a video of the same girl preparing for a yard sale control condition. In study one, 5—6 year old children in the emotion induction condition rated the emotional state of both the protagonist and the self more negatively, and also exhibited more prosocial behavior; sharing more in advantageous inequity AI trials, and less often withholding a benefit in disadvantageous inequity trials, than the control group. Prosocial behavior was significantly correlated with ratings of the emotional state of the protagonist but not with own emotional state, suggesting that empathic concern rather than personal distress was the primary influence on prosocial behavior. In study two, 3-year-olds were tested on AI trials alone, and like the 5 and 6-year-olds, showed more prosocial behavior in the emotion induction condition than the control. It is well established that prosocial behavior such as helping and sharing emerges early in development e.

The link between empathy and prosocial behavior has been the subject of empirical investigation for decades. This author presents a selective review of this work and a consideration of some of the most important theoretical issues that have arisen during this time. Six bodies of research are identified and considered: a laboratory investigations using generic strangers, b studies using problematic strangers, c work using interdependent strangers, d studies of volunteering, e investigations of organizational citizenship behavior, and f research on prosocial behavior with relationship partners. Both dispositional and state empathic concern are consistently related to prosocial actions; situational perspective taking is generally related to prosociality, but its relation is more complex. Three issues meriting continuing research attention are discussed. Keywords: Empathy , sympathy , empathic concern , perspective taking , altruism. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase.


In most theoretical discussions, prosocial behavior motivated by altruistic motives has been linked conceptually to empathy or sympathy. Often, in both theoretical.


Никто ни в чем его не обвинит. Он сам расскажет о том, что случилось. Все люди умирают… что значит еще одна смерть. ГЛАВА 91 В соборе всегда ночь.

Она кружила по пустому кабинету, все еще не преодолев ужас, который вызвало у нее общение с Хейлом. Надо выбираться из шифровалки. Черт с ней, с Цифровой крепостью. Пришла пора действовать.

 Сэр, ключа здесь. Мы обыскали обоих. Осмотрели карманы, одежду, бумажники. Ничего похожего. У Халохота был компьютер Монокль, мы и его проверили.

 - Я полагаю, у этого алгоритма меняющийся открытый текст. Сьюзан затаила дыхание. Первое упоминание о меняющемся открытом тексте впервые появилось в забытом докладе венгерского математика Джозефа Харне, сделанном в 1987 году. Ввиду того что компьютеры, действующие по принципу грубой силы, отыскивают шифр путем изучения открытого текста на предмет наличия в нем узнаваемых словосочетаний, Харне предложил шифровальный алгоритм, который, помимо шифрования, постоянно видоизменял открытый текст. Теоретически постоянная мутация такого рода должна привести к тому, что компьютер, атакующий шифр, никогда не найдет узнаваемое словосочетание и не поймет, нашел ли он искомый ключ.

The relation of empathy to prosocial and related behaviors

 - Беккер улыбнулся и поднял коробку.  - Я, пожалуй, пойду. Меня ждет самолет.

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