File Name: the new politics of surveillance and visibility .zip
The Canadian Journal of Sociology Haggerty and Richard V. Ericson eds.
- The Canadian Journal of Sociology
- Does Mass Surveillance by Governments matter?
- The New Politics of Surveillance and Visibility
This collection challenges conventional wisdom and advances new theoretical approaches through a series of studies of surveillance in policing, the military, commercial enterprises, mass media, and health sciences. Kevin D.
The Canadian Journal of Sociology
Mass surveillance by governments is a contentious issue BBC, that has grown in significance in recent decades with the rapid emergence of the ubiquitous Web, and developments in regulation and governance Lyon, This essay explores mass surveillance, looking at the benefits, e.
An interdisciplinary approach has been chosen due to the contentious nature of the area, in that the conception of surveillance differs depending on disciplines and integration allows these approaches to develop new insights and explanations Repko, Law is chosen to provide an overview of what surveillance techniques are protected by legislation. History, to provide an historical context to current attitudes to, and regulation of, the phenomenon.
Finally, criminology is chosen due to its contrast particularly with law and its focus upon the importance of surveillance as a construction. In democracies, law may be seen as enshrining the social contract between the individual and their elected government Stigler, Law draws precepts about rights from its sub-discipline of jurisprudence. But, in a jurisdiction with an unwritten constitution e. In the UK legislation permits mass surveillance for the purposes of air traffic management Transport Act, or maritime search and rescue Marine Safety Act, , without impinging significantly on the rights of the citizen.
More problematic are areas where personal liberty rather than general safety are at issue, such as the interception of personal telecommunications, including Web traffic House of Commons, Despite the presumed clarity in the framing of laws, emergent technology and social changes have thrown up practical enforcement problems. The introduction of the Human Rights Act created problems insofar that the police were unable to do anything intrusive i.
This led to counter-balancing legislation in the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act , though evolution in mobile telecoms and the Web continue to blur the meaning of laws envisaged as unambiguous when drafted, and the UK now has eight pieces of primary legislation trying to address the issue Information Commissioners Office, Surveillance has been carried out by governments throughout history and is an important field in the academic study of the subject. Post Enlightenment, methods have developed from face-to-face, paper-based modes to increasingly systematic, routine, bureaucratised processes, with the late twentieth century ushering in increasingly sophisticated computer-based pervasive monitoring systems Dandeker, Social historians exploring the emergence of technologies in the recent past provide contextualisation of mass surveillance, suggesting a growing desire on the part of governments to exert stricter social control over citizens.
For example, their analysis of data surveillance carried out by the Liquor Control Board of Ontario between and demonstrates the effectiveness of combining bureaucratic zeal with punch-card technology to enforce laws aimed at controlling racial minorities ibid.
This concept for a new design of prison was proposed by the social reformer, Jeremy Bentham, as a means of facilitating the continuous observation of prisoners, and neatly expresses Enlightenment ideas concerning the privileging of vision as a means to order and control Lyon, Foucault highlighted the role of the utilitarian impetus of modern bureaucracies that have eschewed previous coercive and brutal methods of control in favour of more remote and individuated methods that emphasise and encourage self discipline in the controlled population, be they prisoners or citizens ibid Criminology studies the causes, control and prevention of deviant behaviour within society Hale et al, Criminology contains positivist criminology, which assumes that crime is a fact, and social-constructionist criminology, which argues that deviancy is divergent upon cultural factors Hale et al, A social constructionist approach is taken as this is more appropriate regarding the necessity of surveillance, which is not clear-cut but debateable.
Panopticism is applied throughout criminology. Ericson and Haggerty warn of unintended consequences of such techniques; for example regarding privacy, legal claims can result in making the powerful more opaque whilst they make others more transparent, and data errors can result in disastrous consequences e. Mass surveillance provides protective visibility for those who can afford it whilst social control districts are conversely uncontrolled places where the poor are forced to cooperate with criminals Davis, For Davis the city becomes an idealisation; an artificial simulation based on control, observation and repression.
Similarly, Shearing and Stenning argue that Disney World exemplifies modern private corporate policing. Here, multiple instructions, physical barriers and surveillance by employees and CCTV provide control embedded within alternative functions, their presence subsequently unnoticed Shearing and Stenning, Law is useful in taking a pragmatic view, looking at rights as legally defined and thus an important first step in defining how governments may use surveillance.
However, law is limited in two ways. Firstly by only assessing the status quo it does not evaluate the significance these laws might have or have had; secondly, it does not evaluate how ambiguities within these laws affects citizens. History is therefore beneficial by providing an evidence-based interpretation of how mass surveillance has developed over time. Socio-cultural approaches take in a wide range of concerns, by problematizing issues they develop theories that evaluate the importance of surveillance and translate this to address present concerns.
Criminology is similar to history; both try to evaluate the effects of surveillance on citizens as can be seen via panopticism. Criminology is helpful by exploring the limitations of surveillance, considering both whether it is the response of government or a wider concern e. However criminology is potentially limited through ignoring the benefits of surveillance. To integrate, a socio-cultural approach to history is useful by showing how the impetus to develop ever more efficient means of mass surveillance has its roots in the pre-computer past, and combined with law this presents a solid evidential base for what mass surveillance currently does, and why it may have been enforced.
Taking a more flexible interpretive stance, history and criminology mitigate against the limitations of legal interpretation, showing why it matters to a wider group of individuals.
This combination gives a stronger result as one neither only understands what is there, nor solely argues why it perhaps should not be but together provides an evidenced conclusion that mass surveillance is a contentious issue and therefore does matter.
BBC Borger, J. GCHQ and European spy agencies worked together on mass surveillance. London: The Guardian. Campbell, J. Davis, M. Beyond Blade Runner: Urban Control. Criminological Perspectives. London: Sage, pp. Security and privacy in the internet age [speech] Government Communications Headquarters.
Electronic Frontier Foundation Ericson, R. The New Politics of Surveillance and Visibility. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pp.
Genosko, G. Tense theory: The temporalities of surveillance. Theorizing Surveillance: The Panopticon and Beyond. Cullompton: Willan, Hale, C. Oxford: Oxford University Press. House of Commons, Home Affairs Committee A Surveillance Society?
Human Rights Act s. London: HMSO. Lyon, D. The search for surveillance theories. Theorizing surveillance: The panopticon and beyond, Marine Safety Act c. OECD Provos, N. Cybercrime 2. In Communications of the ACM , 52 4 , Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act c. Shearing, C.
Key Readings in Criminology. Abingdon: Willian Publishing, pp. Schmidl, M. Privacy Laws in Germany - developments over three decades. Stigler, G. The optimum enforcement of laws. In Becker, G. Essays in the Economics of Crime and Punishment pp. Torpey, J. The invention of the passport: surveillance, citizenship and the state.
Cambridge University Press. Transport Act c. Warr, P.
Does Mass Surveillance by Governments matter?
This article draws upon a large-scale survey of professional public institution and private company drone usage in Switzerland. The authors argue that professional drone usage includes a wide range of applications and objectives and, thus, logics of vision and visibility. Instead of being systematic and predictable, the visibilities created by professional drone usage are punctual in occurrence, highly varying in spatial logics and articulations, and, therefore, often unpredictable. This raises important questions and problems with regard to the power dynamics unfolding from the visual and visualising capabilities of the technology that reach far beyond the usual focus on surveillance in current academic engagements with the topic. Quick jump to page content.
While we are building a new and improved webshop, please click below to purchase this content via our partner CCC and their Rightfind service. You will need to register with a RightFind account to finalise the purchase. This collection challenges conventional wisdom and advances new theoretical approaches through a series of studies of surveillance in policing, the military, commercial enterprises, mass media, and health sciences. EN English Deutsch. Your documents are now available to view.
Mass surveillance by governments is a contentious issue BBC, that has grown in significance in recent decades with the rapid emergence of the ubiquitous Web, and developments in regulation and governance Lyon, This essay explores mass surveillance, looking at the benefits, e. An interdisciplinary approach has been chosen due to the contentious nature of the area, in that the conception of surveillance differs depending on disciplines and integration allows these approaches to develop new insights and explanations Repko, Law is chosen to provide an overview of what surveillance techniques are protected by legislation. History, to provide an historical context to current attitudes to, and regulation of, the phenomenon.
The New Politics of Surveillance and Visibility
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Сьюзан должна была признать, что, услышав о Цифровой крепости, она как ученый испытала определенный интерес, желание установить, как Танкадо удалось создать такую программу. Само ее существование противоречило основным правилам криптографии. Она посмотрела на шефа. - Вы уничтожите этот алгоритм сразу же после того, как мы с ним познакомимся. - Конечно. Так, чтобы не осталось и следа.
Он с трудом открыл глаза и увидел первые солнечные лучи. Беккер прекрасно помнил все, что произошло, и опустил глаза, думая увидеть перед собой своего убийцу. Но того человека в очках нигде не. Были другие люди. Празднично одетые испанцы выходили из дверей и ворот на улицу, оживленно разговаривая и смеясь. Халохот, спустившись вниз по улочке, смачно выругался. Сначала от Беккера его отделяла лишь одна супружеская пара, и он надеялся, что они куда-нибудь свернут.
Боже, Сьюзан, с тобой все в порядке. Она промолчала. Не нужно было так резко с ней говорить. Но у него не выдержали нервы. Он слишком долго говорил ей полуправду: просто есть вещи, о которых она ничего не знала, и он молил Бога, чтобы не узнала .
Ты очень бледна. - Затем повернулся и вышел из комнаты.
Росио засмеялась. - Не может быть! - сказала она по-испански. У Беккера застрял комок в горле. Росио была куда смелее своего клиента. - Не может быть? - повторил он, сохраняя ледяной тон.
В то же самое мгновение Сьюзан опять бросила взгляд на руку Танкадо, на этот раз посмотрев не на кольцо… не на гравировку на золоте, а на… его пальцы. Три пальца. Дело было вовсе не и кольце, a в человеческой плоти. Танкадо не говорил, он показывал.