File Name: examination of lymph nodes of head and neck .zip
- Lymphoreticular Examination – OSCE Guide
- Lymphadenopathy and Malignancy
- Lymphatic Drainage of the Head and Neck
- Unexplained Lymphadenopathy: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis
Lymphoreticular Examination – OSCE Guide
Lymphadenopathy and Malignancy
The status of the cervical lymph nodes is the single most important prognostic factor in head and neck cancer. Unfortunately, clinical assessment of the neck is not very accurate, although newer imaging techniques such as CT, MRI and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology can be used to improve upon the results of clinical palpation alone. When the neck is treated surgically, histological information can be gained which has both prognostic and therapeutic implications. Indications for the use of surgery and radiotherapy for the elective and therapeutic management of the neck and the results of such treatment are discussed. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Rent this article via DeepDyve.
A comprehensive collection of clinical examination OSCE guides that include step-by-step images of key steps, video demonstrations and PDF mark schemes. A comprehensive collection of OSCE guides to common clinical procedures, including step-by-step images of key steps, video demonstrations and PDF mark schemes. A collection of communication skills guides, for common OSCE scenarios, including history taking and information giving. A collection of data interpretation guides to help you learn how to interpret various laboratory and radiology investigations. A comprehensive collection of medical revision notes that cover a broad range of clinical topics. A collection of anatomy notes covering the key anatomy concepts that medical students need to learn.
Lymphatic Drainage of the Head and Neck
The lymphatic system functions to drain tissue fluid, plasma proteins and other cellular debris back into the blood stream, and is also involved in immune defence. Once this collection of substances enters the lymphatic vessels, it is known as lymph. Lymph is subsequently filtered by lymph nodes and directed into the venous system.
A more recent article on lymphadenopathy is available. The majority of patients presenting with peripheral lymphadenopathy have easily identifiable causes that are benign or self-limited. Among primary care patients presenting with lymphadenopathy, the prevalence of malignancy has been estimated to be as low as 1.
NCBI Bookshelf. Boston: Butterworths; Infrequently, patients will note enlarged lymph nodes and present with the chief complaint of having a nodule, a swollen gland, a "knot," or enlarged lymph nodes; more commonly, patients do not recognize that they have significantly enlarged lymph nodes, and the lymphadenopathy is discovered by the physician.
Unexplained Lymphadenopathy: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis
Lymphadenopathy is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as medications and iatrogenic causes. The history and physical examination alone usually identify the cause of lymphadenopathy. When the cause is unknown, lymphadenopathy should be classified as localized or generalized. Patients with localized lymphadenopathy should be evaluated for etiologies typically associated with the region involved according to lymphatic drainage patterns. Generalized lymphadenopathy, defined as two or more involved regions, often indicates underlying systemic disease.