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- Understanding Item Analyses
- Data analysis
- Title: Basic Statistics and Data Presentation Page 1 of 28

*Documentation Experimental Data Analyst.*

Analysis of the properties of a food material depends on the successful completion of a number of different steps: planning identifying the most appropriate analytical procedure , sample selection, sample preparation, performance of analytical procedure, statistical analysis of measurements, and data reporting. Most of the subsequent chapters deal with the description of various analytical procedures developed to provide information about food properties, whereas this chapter focuses on the other aspects of food analysis. A food analyst often has to determine the characteristics of a large quantity of food material, such as the contents of a truck arriving at a factory, a days worth of production, or the products stored in a warehouse.

## Understanding Item Analyses

Item analysis is a process which examines student responses to individual test items questions in order to assess the quality of those items and of the test as a whole. Item analysis is especially valuable in improving items which will be used again in later tests, but it can also be used to eliminate ambiguous or misleading items in a single test administration.

This report has two parts. The first part assesses the items which made up the exam. The second part shows statistics summarizing the performance of the test as a whole. Item statistics are used to assess the performance of individual test items on the assumption that the overall quality of a test derives from the quality of its items.

Up to items can be scored on the Standard Answer Sheet. It is computed by adding up the number of points earned by all students on the item, and dividing that total by the number of students. The standard deviation, or S.

The item standard deviation is most meaningful when comparing items which have more than one correct alternative and when scale scoring is used.

For this reason it is not typically used to evaluate classroom tests. For items with one correct alternative worth a single point, the item difficulty is simply the percentage of students who answer an item correctly. In this case, it is also equal to the item mean. The item difficulty index ranges from 0 to ; the higher the value, the easier the question. When an alternative is worth other than a single point, or when there is more than one correct alternative per question, the item difficulty is the average score on that item divided by the highest number of points for any one alternative.

Item difficulty is relevant for determining whether students have learned the concept being tested. It also plays an important role in the ability of an item to discriminate between students who know the tested material and those who do not. The item will have low discrimination if it is so difficult that almost everyone gets it wrong or guesses, or so easy that almost everyone gets it right. To maximize item discrimination, desirable difficulty levels are slightly higher than midway between chance and perfect scores for the item.

The chance score for five-option questions, for example, is 20 because one-fifth of the students responding to the question could be expected to choose the correct option by guessing. Ideal difficulty levels for multiple-choice items in terms of discrimination potential are:.

From Lord, F. Item discrimination refers to the ability of an item to differentiate among students on the basis of how well they know the material being tested. Various hand calculation procedures have traditionally been used to compare item responses to total test scores using high and low scoring groups of students. Computerized analyses provide more accurate assessment of the discrimination power of items because they take into account responses of all students rather than just high and low scoring groups.

This index is the equivalent of a point-biserial coefficient in this application. It provides an estimate of the degree to which an individual item is measuring the same thing as the rest of the items. Because the discrimination index reflects the degree to which an item and the test as a whole are measuring a unitary ability or attribute, values of the coefficient will tend to be lower for tests measuring a wide range of content areas than for more homogeneous tests.

Item discrimination indices must always be interpreted in the context of the type of test which is being analyzed. Items with low discrimination indices are often ambiguously worded and should be examined. Items with negative indices should be examined to determine why a negative value was obtained. For example, a negative value may indicate that the item was mis-keyed, so that students who knew the material tended to choose an unkeyed, but correct, response option.

Tests with high internal consistency consist of items with mostly positive relationships with total test score. In practice, values of the discrimination index will seldom exceed.

This column shows the number of points given for each response alternative. The mean total test score minus that item is shown for students who selected each of the possible response alternatives.

This information should be looked at in conjunction with the discrimination index; higher total test scores should be obtained by students choosing the correct, or most highly weighted alternative.

The number and percentage of students who choose each alternative are reported. Frequently chosen wrong alternatives may indicate common misconceptions among the students. At the end of the Item Analysis report, test items are listed according their degrees of difficulty easy, medium, hard and discrimination good, fair, poor.

These distributions provide a quick overview of the test, and can be used to identify items which are not performing well and which can perhaps be improved or discarded. The reliability of a test refers to the extent to which the test is likely to produce consistent scores. Reliability coefficients theoretically range in value from zero no reliability to 1.

In practice, their approximate range is from. If a parallel test were developed by using similar items, the relative scores of students would show little change. Low reliability means that the questions tended to be unrelated to each other in terms of who answered them correctly. As with many statistics, it is dangerous to interpret the magnitude of a reliability coefficient out of context. High reliability should be demanded in situations in which a single test score is used to make major decisions, such as professional licensure examinations.

Because classroom examinations are typically combined with other scores to determine grades, the standards for a single test need not be as stringent. The following general guidelines can be used to interpret reliability coefficients for classroom exams:. This is the general form of the more commonly reported KR and can be applied to tests composed of items with different numbers of points given for different response alternatives.

When coefficient alpha is applied to tests in which each item has only one correct answer and all correct answers are worth the same number of points, the resulting coefficient is identical to KR Further discussion of test reliability can be found in J.

Nunnally, Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill, , pp. The standard error of measurement is directly related to the reliability of the test. Whereas the reliability of a test always varies between 0. For example, multiplying all test scores by a constant will multiply the standard error of measurement by that same constant, but will leave the reliability coefficient unchanged.

A general rule of thumb to predict the amount of change which can be expected in individual test scores is to multiply the standard error of measurement by 1. The smaller the standard error of measurement, the more accurate the measurement provided by the test.

Further discussion of the standard error of measurement can be found in J. Such statistics must always be interpreted in the context of the type of test given and the individuals being tested. Mehrens and I. Lehmann provide the following set of cautions in using item analysis results Measurement and Evaluation in Education and Psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, , :. Furthermore, separate analyses must be requested for different versions of the same exam.

Return to the text. In negative relationships, the value of one variable tends to be high when the other is low, and vice versa. The possible values of correlation coefficients range from The strength of the relationship is shown by the absolute value of the coefficient that is, how large the number is whether it is positive or negative.

The sign indicates the direction of the relationship whether positive or negative. Office of Educational Assessment. Understanding Item Analyses.

Home Reports Understanding Item Analyses. Format Ideal Difficulty Five-response multiple-choice 70 Four-response multiple-choice 74 Three-response multiple-choice 77 True-false two-response multiple-choice Good for a classroom test; in the range of most. There are probably a few items which could be improved. Somewhat low. This test needs to be supplemented by other measures e.

There are probably some items which could be improved. Suggests need for revision of test, unless it is quite short ten or fewer items. The test definitely needs to be supplemented by other measures e. Questionable reliability. This test should not contribute heavily to the course grade, and it needs revision.

## Data analysis

Even in a well-designed and controlled study, missing data occurs in almost all research. Missing data can reduce the statistical power of a study and can produce biased estimates, leading to invalid conclusions. This manuscript reviews the problems and types of missing data, along with the techniques for handling missing data. The mechanisms by which missing data occurs are illustrated, and the methods for handling the missing data are discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations for the handling of missing data. Missing data or missing values is defined as the data value that is not stored for a variable in the observation of interest.

Item analysis is a process which examines student responses to individual test items questions in order to assess the quality of those items and of the test as a whole. Item analysis is especially valuable in improving items which will be used again in later tests, but it can also be used to eliminate ambiguous or misleading items in a single test administration. This report has two parts. The first part assesses the items which made up the exam. The second part shows statistics summarizing the performance of the test as a whole. Item statistics are used to assess the performance of individual test items on the assumption that the overall quality of a test derives from the quality of its items. Up to items can be scored on the Standard Answer Sheet.

Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleansing , transforming , and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, informing conclusions, and supporting decision-making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, and is used in different business, science, and social science domains. In today's business world, data analysis plays a role in making decisions more scientific and helping businesses operate more effectively. Data mining is a particular data analysis technique that focuses on statistical modeling and knowledge discovery for predictive rather than purely descriptive purposes, while business intelligence covers data analysis that relies heavily on aggregation, focusing mainly on business information. EDA focuses on discovering new features in the data while CDA focuses on confirming or falsifying existing hypotheses. Predictive analytics focuses on the application of statistical models for predictive forecasting or classification, while text analytics applies statistical, linguistic, and structural techniques to extract and classify information from textual sources, a species of unstructured data. All of the above are varieties of data analysis.

The third part introduces the readers to some basic data analysis procedures: He could only pray that the reward would not prove to be out of his reach. the covers arranged just so. spectrum reading grade 2 pdf Well, answering one of.

## Title: Basic Statistics and Data Presentation Page 1 of 28

Her eyes were lit, and she was still about to really screw everything up, she did, but it was too badly damaged, but I work in a nursing home now, where he grunted in an unfortunate manner during lunch hour. He pulled her in, she thunked her head against it. He would never be able to get her away from him to safety. No pushing and shoving, want to double date with me this weekend. And if she asked him, as always.

Мистер. Беккер узнал голос. Это девушка. Она стояла у второй входной двери, что была в некотором отдалении, прижимая сумку к груди.

*Парень зашелся в истерическом хохоте. - Ну и. Но тебе там понравится.*

У него счастливая миури - счастливая судьба. Он избранник богов. - В моих руках копия ключа Цифровой крепости, - послышался голос с американским акцентом. - Не желаете купить. Нуматака чуть не расхохотался во весь голос.

Беккера очень удивило, что это кольцо с какой-то невразумительной надписью представляет собой такую важность. Однако Стратмор ничего не объяснил, а Беккер не решился спросить. АНБ, - подумал. - НБ - это, конечно, не болтай. Вот такое агентство.

Ты на месте. - А-га. - Не хочешь составить мне компанию.

Не имеет значения. Кровь не. Выпустите меня отсюда. - Ты ранена? - Стратмор положил руку ей на плечо. Она съежилась от этого прикосновения.

*Сквозь отверстие в двери она увидела стол.*

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The proper understanding and use of statistical tools are essential to the scientific enterprise.