File Name: implications of operant conditioning in teaching and learning .zip
In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Meaning of Operant Conditioning 2.
- Operant Conditioning: Definition and Educational Implications
- What Is Operant Conditioning and How Does It Work?
- Educational Implications of Operant Conditioning
Discipline is important for a child's success and development - most teaching staff would vouch for that.
Operant Conditioning: Definition and Educational Implications
Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence whether negative or positive for that behavior. For example, when lab rats press a lever when a green light is on, they receive a food pellet as a reward. When they press the lever when a red light is on, they receive a mild electric shock. As a result, they learn to press the lever when the green light is on and avoid the red light.
But operant conditioning is not just something that takes place in experimental settings while training lab animals. It also plays a powerful role in everyday learning. Reinforcement and punishment take place in natural settings all the time, as well as in more structured settings such as classrooms or therapy sessions.
Skinner , which is why you may occasionally hear it referred to as Skinnerian conditioning. Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior.
Through the first part of the 20th century, behaviorism became a major force within psychology. Early behaviorists focused their interests on associative learning. Operant conditioning relies on a fairly simple premise: Actions that are followed by reinforcement will be strengthened and more likely to occur again in the future.
If you tell a funny story in class and everybody laughs, you will probably be more likely to tell that story again in the future.
If you raise your hand to ask a question and your teacher praises your polite behavior, you will be more likely to raise your hand the next time you have a question or comment. Because the behavior was followed by reinforcement, or a desirable outcome, the preceding action is strengthened. Conversely, actions that result in punishment or undesirable consequences will be weakened and less likely to occur again in the future.
If you tell the same story again in another class but nobody laughs this time, you will be less likely to repeat the story again in the future. If you shout out an answer in class and your teacher scolds you, then you might be less likely to interrupt the class again.
Skinner distinguished between two different types of behaviors. While classical conditioning could account for respondent behaviors, Skinner realized that it could not account for a great deal of learning.
Instead, Skinner suggested that operant conditioning held far greater importance. Skinner invented different devices during his boyhood and he put these skills to work during his studies on operant conditioning. The chamber could hold a small animal, such as a rat or pigeon. The box also contained a bar or key that the animal could press in order to receive a reward.
In order to track responses, Skinner also developed a device known as a cumulative recorder. The device recorded responses as an upward movement of a line so that response rates could be read by looking at the slope of the line. There are several key concepts in operant conditioning. There are two kinds of reinforcers. There are two kinds of punishment. Reinforcement is not necessarily a straightforward process, and there are a number of factors that can influence how quickly and how well new things are learned.
Skinner found that when and how often behaviors were reinforced played a role in the speed and strength of acquisition. In other words, the timing and frequency of reinforcement influenced how new behaviors were learned and how old behaviors were modified. We can find examples of operant conditioning at work all around us. Consider the case of children completing homework to earn a reward from a parent or teacher, or employees finishing projects to receive praise or promotions.
More examples of operant conditioning in action include:. In some of these examples, the promise or possibility of rewards causes an increase in behavior. Operant conditioning can also be used to decrease a behavior via the removal of a desirable outcome or the application of a negative outcome.
For example, a child may be told they will lose recess privileges if they talk out of turn in class. This potential for punishment may lead to a decrease in disruptive behaviors. While behaviorism may have lost much of the dominance it held during the early part of the 20th century, operant conditioning remains an important and often used tool in the learning and behavior modification process.
Sometimes natural consequences lead to changes in our behavior. In other instances, rewards and punishments may be consciously doled out in order to create a change. Operant conditioning is something you may immediately recognize in your own life, whether it is in your approach to teaching your children good behavior or in training the family dog.
Remember that any type of learning takes time. Consider the type of reinforcement or punishment that may work best for your unique situation and assess which type of reinforcement schedule might lead to the best results. Ever wonder what your personality type means? Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. Operant conditioning. Annu Rev Psychol. Rilling M. How the challenge of explaining learning influenced the origins and development of John B.
Watson's behaviorism. Am J Psychol. Evidence for a neural law of effect. Progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement. Table of Contents View All. Behavior Types. Reinforcement in Conditioning Behavior. Punishment and its Influence on Behavior. Reinforcement Schedules and How They Work. Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback!
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What Is Operant Conditioning and How Does It Work?
Operant conditioning also called instrumental conditioning is a type of associative learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment. It is also a procedure that is used to bring about such learning. Although operant and classical conditioning both involve behaviors controlled by environmental stimuli, they differ in nature. In operant conditioning, stimuli present when a behavior that is rewarded or punished, controls that behavior. For example, a child may learn to open a box to get the sweets inside, or learn to avoid touching a hot stove; in operant terms, the box and the stove are "discriminative stimuli".
Educational Implications of Operant Conditioning
Operant conditioning is a learning process whereby deliberate behaviors are reinforced through consequences. It differs from classical conditioning, also called respondent or Pavlovian conditioning, in which involuntary behaviors are triggered by external stimuli. With classical conditioning , a dog that has learned the sound of a bell precedes the arrival of food may begin to salivate at the sound of a bell, even if no food arrives.
Citation: Huitt, W. An introduction to operant instrumental conditioning. Educational Psychology Interactive. A human being fashions his consequences as surely as he fashions his goods or his dwelling. Nothing that he says, thinks or does is without consequences. The major theorists for the development of operant conditioning are Edward Thorndike , John Watson , and B.
It is elaborative of the implications of operant conditioning. Thanks for the best authorship of this article. Wednesday, October 6, Implications of Operant conditioning Theory. Implication of the theory of operant conditioning:. Conditioning study behaviour. Teaching is the arrangement of contingencies of reinforcement which expedite learning. For effective teaching teacher should arranged effective contingencies of reinforcement.
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