Methods Of Data Analysis In Qualitative And Quantitative Research Pdf

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In an earlier paper, 1 we presented an introduction to using qualitative research methods in pharmacy practice. In this article, we review some principles of the collection, analysis, and management of qualitative data to help pharmacists interested in doing research in their practice to continue their learning in this area. Qualitative research can help researchers to access the thoughts and feelings of research participants, which can enable development of an understanding of the meaning that people ascribe to their experiences. Whereas quantitative research methods can be used to determine how many people undertake particular behaviours, qualitative methods can help researchers to understand how and why such behaviours take place. In the previous paper, 1 we outlined 3 commonly used methodologies: ethnography 2 , grounded theory 3 , and phenomenology.

Qualitative Research: Data Collection, Analysis, and Management

In an earlier paper, 1 we presented an introduction to using qualitative research methods in pharmacy practice. In this article, we review some principles of the collection, analysis, and management of qualitative data to help pharmacists interested in doing research in their practice to continue their learning in this area. Qualitative research can help researchers to access the thoughts and feelings of research participants, which can enable development of an understanding of the meaning that people ascribe to their experiences.

Whereas quantitative research methods can be used to determine how many people undertake particular behaviours, qualitative methods can help researchers to understand how and why such behaviours take place. In the previous paper, 1 we outlined 3 commonly used methodologies: ethnography 2 , grounded theory 3 , and phenomenology.

Grounded theory and its later modified versions e. Qualitative work requires reflection on the part of researchers, both before and during the research process, as a way of providing context and understanding for readers.

When being reflexive, researchers should not try to simply ignore or avoid their own biases as this would likely be impossible ; instead, reflexivity requires researchers to reflect upon and clearly articulate their position and subjectivities world view, perspectives, biases , so that readers can better understand the filters through which questions were asked, data were gathered and analyzed, and findings were reported.

From this perspective, bias and subjectivity are not inherently negative but they are unavoidable; as a result, it is best that they be articulated up-front in a manner that is clear and coherent for readers. What qualitative study seeks to convey is why people have thoughts and feelings that might affect the way they behave.

Such study may occur in any number of contexts, but here, we focus on pharmacy practice and the way people behave with regard to medicines use e. As we suggested in our earlier article, 1 an important point about qualitative research is that there is no attempt to generalize the findings to a wider population. The role of the researcher in qualitative research is to attempt to access the thoughts and feelings of study participants.

This is not an easy task, as it involves asking people to talk about things that may be very personal to them. However the data are being collected, a primary responsibility of the researcher is to safeguard participants and their data. Mechanisms for such safeguarding must be clearly articulated to participants and must be approved by a relevant research ethics review board before the research begins.

Researchers and practitioners new to qualitative research should seek advice from an experienced qualitative researcher before embarking on their project. Whatever philosophical standpoint the researcher is taking and whatever the data collection method e. In addition to the variety of study methodologies available, there are also different ways of making a record of what is said and done during an interview or focus group, such as taking handwritten notes or video-recording.

If the researcher is audio- or video-recording data collection, then the recordings must be transcribed verbatim before data analysis can begin. Field notes allow the researcher to maintain and comment upon impressions, environmental contexts, behaviours, and nonverbal cues that may not be adequately captured through the audio-recording; they are typically handwritten in a small notebook at the same time the interview takes place.

Field notes can provide important context to the interpretation of audio-taped data and can help remind the researcher of situational factors that may be important during data analysis. Such notes need not be formal, but they should be maintained and secured in a similar manner to audio tapes and transcripts, as they contain sensitive information and are relevant to the research. It is their voices that the researcher is trying to hear, so that they can be interpreted and reported on for others to read and learn from.

To illustrate this point, consider the anonymized transcript excerpt presented in Appendix 1 , which is taken from a research interview conducted by one of the authors J. We refer to this excerpt throughout the remainder of this paper to illustrate how data can be managed, analyzed, and presented.

Interpretation of the data will depend on the theoretical standpoint taken by researchers. The first is the culture of the indigenous population of Canada and the place of this population in society, and the second is the social constructivist theory used in the constructivist grounded theory method.

With regard to the first standpoint, it can be surmised that, to have decided to conduct the research, the researchers must have felt that there was anecdotal evidence of differences in access to arthritis care for patients from indigenous and non-indigenous backgrounds. With regard to the second standpoint, it can be surmised that the researchers used social constructivist theory because it assumes that behaviour is socially constructed; in other words, people do things because of the expectations of those in their personal world or in the wider society in which they live.

Thus, these 2 standpoints and there may have been others relevant to the research of Thurston and others 7 will have affected the way in which these researchers interpreted the experiences of the indigenous population participants and those providing their care.

Another standpoint is feminist standpoint theory which, among other things, focuses on marginalized groups in society. Such theories are helpful to researchers, as they enable us to think about things from a different perspective. Being aware of the standpoints you are taking in your own research is one of the foundations of qualitative work. It is important for the researcher to reflect upon and articulate his or her starting point for such analysis; for example, in the example, the coder could reflect upon her own experience as a female of a majority ethnocultural group who has lived within middle class and upper middle class settings.

This personal history therefore forms the filter through which the data will be examined. This filter does not diminish the quality or significance of the analysis, since every researcher has his or her own filters; however, by explicitly stating and acknowledging what these filters are, the researcher makes it easer for readers to contextualize the work.

For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that interviews or focus groups have been audio-recorded. As mentioned above, transcribing is an arduous process, even for the most experienced transcribers, but it must be done to convert the spoken word to the written word to facilitate analysis. For anyone new to conducting qualitative research, it is beneficial to transcribe at least one interview and one focus group.

It is only by doing this that researchers realize how difficult the task is, and this realization affects their expectations when asking others to transcribe. If the research project has sufficient funding, then a professional transcriber can be hired to do the work.

If this is the case, then it is a good idea to sit down with the transcriber, if possible, and talk through the research and what the participants were talking about. This background knowledge for the transcriber is especially important in research in which people are using jargon or medical terms as in pharmacy practice.

Involving your transcriber in this way makes the work both easier and more rewarding, as he or she will feel part of the team. Transcription editing software is also available, but it is expensive. For example, ELAN more formally known as EUDICO Linguistic Annotator, developed at the Technical University of Berlin 8 is a tool that can help keep data organized by linking media and data files particularly valuable if, for example, video-taping of interviews is complemented by transcriptions.

It can also be helpful in searching complex data sets. Products such as ELAN do not actually automatically transcribe interviews or complete analyses, and they do require some time and effort to learn; nonetheless, for some research applications, it may be a valuable to consider such software tools.

All audio recordings should be transcribed verbatim, regardless of how intelligible the transcript may be when it is read back. Lines of text should be numbered. Once the transcription is complete, the researcher should read it while listening to the recording and do the following: correct any spelling or other errors; anonymize the transcript so that the participant cannot be identified from anything that is said e.

Dealing with the transcription of a focus group is slightly more difficult, as multiple voices are involved. In addition, the focus group will usually have 2 facilitators, whose respective roles will help in making sense of the data.

While one facilitator guides participants through the topic, the other can make notes about context and group dynamics.

While continuing with the processes of coding and theming described in the next 2 sections , it is important to consider not just what the person is saying but also what they are not saying. For example, is a lengthy pause an indication that the participant is finding the subject difficult, or is the person simply deciding what to say? Smith 9 suggested a qualitative research method known as interpretative phenomenological analysis, which has 2 basic tenets: first, that it is rooted in phenomenology, attempting to understand the meaning that individuals ascribe to their lived experiences, and second, that the researcher must attempt to interpret this meaning in the context of the research.

Larkin and others 10 discussed the importance of not just providing a description of what participants say. Rather, interpretative phenomenological analysis is about getting underneath what a person is saying to try to truly understand the world from his or her perspective. Once all of the research interviews have been transcribed and checked, it is time to begin coding. Field notes compiled during an interview can be a useful complementary source of information to facilitate this process, as the gap in time between an interview, transcribing, and coding can result in memory bias regarding nonverbal or environmental context issues that may affect interpretation of data.

Coding can be done by hand on a hard copy of the transcript, by making notes in the margin or by highlighting and naming sections of text. More commonly, researchers use qualitative research software e. It is advised that researchers undertake a formal course in the use of such software or seek supervision from a researcher experienced in these tools.

If we read a little more deeply, we can ask ourselves how the participant might have come to feel that the doctor assumed he or she was aware of the diagnosis or indeed that they had only just been told the diagnosis.

There are a number of pauses in the narrative that might suggest the participant is finding it difficult to recall that experience.

At the end of this excerpt, the participant just trails off, recalling that no-one showed any interest, which makes for very moving reading. There are no statistical tests that can be used to check reliability and validity as there are in quantitative research.

This simple act can result in revisions to the codes and can help to clarify and confirm the research findings. Theming refers to the drawing together of codes from one or more transcripts to present the findings of qualitative research in a coherent and meaningful way.

Thus, when the findings are organized for presentation, each theme can become the heading of a section in the report or presentation. Implications for real life e. This synthesis is the aim of the final stage of qualitative research. There are a number of ways in which researchers can synthesize and present their findings, but any conclusions drawn by the researchers must be supported by direct quotations from the participants.

The work of Latif and others 12 gives an example of how qualitative research findings might be presented. As has been suggested above, if researchers code and theme their material appropriately, they will naturally find the headings for sections of their report. The final presentation of the research will usually be in the form of a report or a paper and so should follow accepted academic guidelines.

In particular, the article should begin with an introduction, including a literature review and rationale for the research. There should be a section on the chosen methodology and a brief discussion about why qualitative methodology was most appropriate for the study question and why one particular methodology e. The method itself should then be described, including ethics approval, choice of participants, mode of recruitment, and method of data collection e.

The findings should be written as if a story is being told; as such, it is not necessary to have a lengthy discussion section at the end. As stated earlier, it is not the intention of qualitative research to allow the findings to be generalized, and therefore this is not, in itself, a limitation. Planning out the way that findings are to be presented is helpful. It is useful to insert the headings of the sections the themes and then make a note of the codes that exemplify the thoughts and feelings of your participants.

It is generally advisable to put in the quotations that you want to use for each theme, using each quotation only once. After all this is done, the telling of the story can begin as you give your voice to the experiences of the participants, writing around their quotations. Finally, as appropriate, it is possible to include examples from literature or policy documents that add support for your findings. It can be used in pharmacy practice research to explore how patients feel about their health and their treatment.

An understanding of these issues can help pharmacists and other health care professionals to tailor health care to match the individual needs of patients and to develop a concordant relationship. Doing qualitative research is not easy and may require a complete rethink of how research is conducted, particularly for researchers who are more familiar with quantitative approaches. There are many ways of conducting qualitative research, and this paper has covered some of the practical issues regarding data collection, analysis, and management.

The participant age late 50s had suffered from a chronic mental health illness for 30 years. As the participant talked about past experiences, the researcher asked:. Umm—well it was pretty much they could do what they wanted with you because I was put into the er, the er kind of system er, I was just on. He had a book this thick [gestures] and on each page it was like three questions and he went through.

The planned 2-year series is intended to appeal to relatively inexperienced researchers, with the goal of building research capacity among practising pharmacists.

The articles, presenting simple but rigorous guidance to encourage and support novice researchers, are being solicited from authors with appropriate expertise.

Bond CM.

Quantitative Data: Definition, Types, Analysis and Examples

Home Consumer Insights Market Research. Qualitative data is defined as the data that approximates and characterizes. Qualitative data can be observed and recorded. This data type is non-numerical in nature. This type of data is collected through methods of observations, one-to-one interviews, conducting focus groups , and similar methods. Qualitative data in statistics is also known as categorical data — data that can be arranged categorically based on the attributes and properties of a thing or a phenomenon.

Thematic analysis, often called Qualitative Content Analysis QCA in Europe, is one of the most commonly used methods for analyzing qualitative data. This paper presents the basics of this systematic method of qualitative data analysis, highlights its key characteristics, and describes a typical workflow. The aim is to present the main characteristics and to give a simple example of the process so that readers can assess whether this method might be useful for their own research. Special attention is paid to the formation of categories, since all scholars agree that categories are at the heart of the method. Thematic analysis, often called Qualitative Content Analysis QCA in Europe, is one of the most commonly used methods for analyzing qualitative data Guest et al.


PDF | The explanation of how one carries out the data analysis process is an area that is data analysis techniques to students of qualitative research methods. The quantitative analysis involved looking for patterns within the data and.


Qualitative Research: Data Collection, Analysis, and Management

Qualitative data is often subjective, rich, and consists of in-depth information normally presented in the form of words. Analysing qualitative data entails reading a large amount of transcripts looking for similarities or differences, and subsequently finding themes and developing categories. Recently, the use of software specifically designed for qualitative data management greatly reduces technical sophistication and eases the laborious task, thus making the process relatively easier.

Qualitative Research: Data Collection, Analysis, and Management

Data Analysis in Qualitative Research: A Brief Guide to Using Nvivo

Qualitative research relies on data obtained by the researcher from first-hand observation, interviews, questionnaires, focus groups, participant-observation, recordings made in natural settings, documents, and artifacts. The data are generally nonnumerical. Qualitative methods include ethnography , grounded theory , discourse analysis , and interpretative phenomenological analysis.

Qualitative research deals in more abstract descriptions while quantitative research deals in numbers and actual hard data. Variables Study of the whole, not variables. The difference between qualitative and quantitative research is fairly simple, yet their consequences are diverse and often complicated.

Qualitative Data – Definition, Types, Analysis and Examples

THE PARTICIPANT’S VIEWPOINT

Hammarberg, M. Kirkman, S. The authors report that the guidelines are based on a comprehensive review of the literature and we congratulate them on their meticulous compilation of evidence into a clinically useful document. However, when we read the methodology section, we were baffled and disappointed to find that evidence from research using qualitative methods was not included in the formulation of the guidelines. Qualitative and quantitative research methods are often juxtaposed as representing two different world views. In quantitative circles, qualitative research is commonly viewed with suspicion and considered lightweight because it involves small samples which may not be representative of the broader population, it is seen as not objective, and the results are assessed as biased by the researchers' own experiences or opinions.

Home Consumer Insights Market Research. Quantitative data is defined as the value of data in the form of counts or numbers where each data-set has an unique numerical value associated with it. This data is any quantifiable information that can be used for mathematical calculations and statistical analysis, such that real-life decisions can be made based on these mathematical derivations. This data can be verified and can also be conveniently evaluated using mathematical techniques. There are values associated with most measuring parameters such as pounds or kilograms for weight, dollars for cost etc. Quantitative data makes measuring various parameters controllable due to the ease of mathematical derivations they come with. Quantitative data is usually collected for statistical analysis using surveys , polls or questionnaires sent across to a specific section of a population.

Home Consumer Insights Market Research. Qualitative data is defined as the data that approximates and characterizes. Qualitative data can be observed and recorded. This data type is non-numerical in nature. This type of data is collected through methods of observations, one-to-one interviews, conducting focus groups , and similar methods. Qualitative data in statistics is also known as categorical data — data that can be arranged categorically based on the attributes and properties of a thing or a phenomenon.

Qualitative Text Analysis: A Systematic Approach

It often describes a situation or event, answering the 'what' and 'how many' questions you may have about something. This is research which involves measuring or counting attributes i. What does this mean?

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1 Response
  1. CГ©line L.

    questionnaires, Likert scales. Data analysis: Descriptive. and inferential statistics. Coded data entered into. statistical packages such as.

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