Fluoride And Drugs Thesis Pdf

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Fluorochemicals are a widely distributed class of compounds and have been utilized across a wide range of industries for decades.

Roles of Fluorine in Drug Design and Drug Action

Recently, epidemiological studies have suggested that fluoride is a human developmental neurotoxicant that reduces measures of intelligence in children, placing it into the same category as toxic metals lead, methylmercury, arsenic and polychlorinated biphenyls. If true, this assessment would be highly relevant considering the widespread fluoridation of drinking water and the worldwide use of fluoride in oral hygiene products such as toothpaste. To gain a deeper understanding of these assertions, we reviewed the levels of human exposure, as well as results from animal experiments, particularly focusing on developmental toxicity, and the molecular mechanisms by which fluoride can cause adverse effects. Even for unusually high fluoride exposure levels, an MoE of at least ten was obtained. Furthermore, concentrations of fluoride in human plasma are much lower than fluoride concentrations, causing effects in cell cultures. In contrast, 21 of 23 recent epidemiological studies report an association between high fluoride exposure and reduced intelligence. The discrepancy between experimental and epidemiological evidence may be reconciled with deficiencies inherent in most of these epidemiological studies on a putative association between fluoride and intelligence, especially with respect to adequate consideration of potential confounding factors, e.

Ingestion of excess fluoride, most commonly in drinking-water affects the teeth and bones. It results in major health disorders like dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis and non-skeletal fluorosis. People exposed to large amounts of fluoride show dental effects much earlier than the skeletal effects. Dental fluorosis affects children and discolours and disfigures the teeth. Skeletal fluorosis affects the bones and major joints of the body like neck, back bone, shoulder, hip and knee joints resulting in to severe pain, rigidity or stiffness in joints.

Fluoride in Quaternary groundwater aquifer, Nile Valley, Luxor, Egypt

File Download FullText. Cheung, Y. Oral health issues in recovering drug addicts. DC Field Value Language dc. Methamphetamine has become the most abused psychotropic drug1.

Dental caries is still one of the major public health problems. The most effective way of caries prevention is the use of fluoride. The aim of our research was to review the literature about fluoride toxicity and to inform physicians, dentists and public health specialists whether fluoride use is expedient and safe. Data we used in our review were systematically searched and collected from web pages and documents published from different international institutions. Fluoride occurs naturally in our environment but we consume it in small amounts.

DOI : The article discusses the basic properties of fluorine atom that have made it so useful in drug development. It presents several examples of therapeutically useful drugs acting against many life-threatening diseases along with the mechanism as to how fluorine influences the drug activity. It has been pointed out that fluorine, due to its ability to increase the lipophilicity of the molecule, greatly affects the hydrophobic interaction between the drug molecule and the receptor. Because of its small size, it hardly produces any steric effect, rather due to electronic properties enters into electrostatic and hydrogen-bond interactions. Thus, it greatly affects the drug-receptor interaction and leads to increase the activity of the drugs. Keywords: Fluorine, fluorinated drugs, fluorinated pyrazoles, fluorinated benzazoles, fluorinated quinolones, hydrophobic.

PDF | Millions of people from different countries of the world are deeply dependent Data on fluoride concentration in water, foodstuffs, drugs, cosmetics​, etc were collected PhD Dissertation, Iahangirnagar University,

Roles of Fluorine in Drug Design and Drug Action

The occurrence of fluoride in ground water is the focus of the public and has attracted the attention of many scientists all over the world due to its importance in public health. Deficiency or increase of fluoride uptake is considered a public health problem due to the narrow permissible limit which should not exceed 1. The range of fluoride tolerance and toxicity is narrow. Deviation from the optimal levels therefore results in dental health effects such as caries and fluorosis.

The discovery of fluoride in dentistry has revolutionized treatment modalities with a new aspect of prevention and conservation of tooth structure coming into foreplay. Since then, there has been a lot of research on both topical and systemic fluoridation in an overzealous attempt to control the most debilitating dental problem of caries. Although topical fluoride is still being widely used as a preventive measure for dental caries, systemic administration of the same has gained major criticism worldwide due to the low margin of safety of fluoride and no control over the amount of individual intake when administered on a community level. This problem is more prevalent in countries with presence of natural fluoride belts that extend from Turkey to China and Japan through Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan increasing the chances of both dental and skeletal fluorosis and hence increasing the focus toward defluoridation.

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Fluorine is a chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists at standard conditions as a highly toxic, pale yellow diatomic gas. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive, as it reacts with all other elements, except for argon , neon , and helium.

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ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CRITERIA FOR FLUORINE AND FLUORIDES. Rage. PREFACE. sample and to avoid contamination with outside fluoride and loss of fluoride after Stockholm, Karolinska Institute, Thesis. EKSTRAND, J. Assoc., MCQUEEN, E.G. () New Zealand Committee on Adverse Drug.

It has become evident that fluorinated compounds have a remarkable record in medicinal chemistry and will play a continuing role in providing lead compounds for therapeutic applications. This tutorial review provides a sampling of renowned fluorinated drugs and their mode of action with a discussion clarifying the role and impact of fluorine substitution on drug potency. If you are not the author of this article and you wish to reproduce material from it in a third party non-RSC publication you must formally request permission using Copyright Clearance Center. Go to our Instructions for using Copyright Clearance Center page for details. Authors contributing to RSC publications journal articles, books or book chapters do not need to formally request permission to reproduce material contained in this article provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.

Fluoride contamination has been recognised as one of the major problems worldwide, imposing a serious threat to human health and affecting the safety of drinking water. Adsorption is one of the widely considered appropriate technologies for water defluorination. The present study describes the preparation of a zirconium-based metal organic framework MOF adsorbent using a solvothermal method and its adsorption efficiency for removal of fluoride ions from water. It was found that the synthesized MOF showed the distinguishable octahedral shape particle with a lattice spacing of 0. Adsorption studies were carried out to study the defluorination effectiveness by varying contact time 30— min , adsorbent dose 0.

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