File Name: economic and social development india .zip
After more fundamental reforms since and their renewal in the s, India has progressed towards a free market economy. In the late s, India's growth reached 7.
- The Measurement of Economic, Social and Environmental Performance of Countries: A Novel Approach
- Measure Well-Being to Improve It
- Economic development in India
The Measurement of Economic, Social and Environmental Performance of Countries: A Novel Approach
The development of transportation systems is embedded within the scale and context in which they take place, from the local to the global and from environmental, historical, technological, and economic perspectives.
Development can be defined as improving the welfare of a society through appropriate social, political, and economic conditions. The expected outcomes are quantitative and qualitative improvements in human capital e. The development of transportation systems takes place in a socioeconomic context. While development policies and strategies tend to focus on physical capital, recent years have seen a better balance by including human capital issues. Irrespective of the relative importance of physical versus human capital, development cannot occur without both interacting as infrastructures cannot remain effective without proper operations and maintenance.
At the same time, economic activities cannot take place without an infrastructure base. The highly transactional and service-oriented functions of many transport activities underline the complex relationship between its physical and human capital needs. For instance, effective logistics rely on infrastructures and managerial expertise. Because of its intensive use of infrastructures , the transport sector is an important component of the economy and a common tool used for development.
This is even more so in a global economy where economic opportunities have been increasingly related to the mobility of people and freight, including information and communication technologies.
A relation between the quantity and quality of transport infrastructure and the level of economic development is apparent. When transport systems are efficient, they provide economic and social opportunities and benefits that result in positive multiplier effects such as better accessibility to markets, employment, and additional investments.
At the aggregate level, efficient transportation reduces costs in many economic sectors , while inefficient transportation increases these costs. Besides, the impacts of transportation are not always intended and can have unforeseen or unintended consequences.
For instance, congestion is often an unintended consequence in providing free or low-cost transport infrastructure to the users. However, congestion is also an indication of a growing economy where capacity and infrastructure have difficulties keeping up with the rising mobility demands.
Transport carries an important social and environmental load, which cannot be neglected. Assessing the economic importance of transportation requires the categorization of the types of impacts it conveys. These involve core the physical characteristics of transportation , operational and geographical dimensions:. The economic importance of the transportation industry can thus be assessed from a macroeconomic and microeconomic perspective:. The added value and employment effects of transport services usually extend beyond those generated by that activity; indirect effects are salient.
For instance, transportation companies purchase a part of their inputs fuel, supplies, maintenance from local suppliers. The production of these inputs generates additional value-added and employment in the local economy. In turn, the suppliers purchase goods and services from other local firms. There are further rounds of local re-spending, which generate additional value-added and employment.
Similarly, households that receive income from employment in transport activities spend some of their income on local goods and services. These purchases result in additional local jobs and added value.
Some of the household income from these additional jobs is spent on local goods and services, thereby creating further jobs and income for local households. As a result of these successive rounds of re-spending in the framework of local purchases, the overall impact on the economy exceeds the initial round of output, income, and employment generated by passenger and freight transport activities.
Transportation links together the factors of production in a complex web of relationships between producers and consumers.
The outcome is commonly a more efficient division of production by the exploitation of comparative geographical advantages, as well as the means to develop economies of scale and scope.
The productivity of space, capital, and labor is thus enhanced with the efficiency of distribution and personal mobility. Economic growth is increasingly linked with transport developments, namely infrastructures, but also with managerial expertise, which is crucial for logistics. Thus, although transportation is an infrastructure intensive activity, hard assets must be supported by an array of soft assets, namely labor, management, and information systems.
Decisions must be made about how to use and operate transportation systems to optimize benefits and minimize costs and inconvenience. Transportation developments that have taken place since the beginning of the industrial revolution have been linked to growing economic opportunities.
At each stage of societal development, a particular transport technology has been developed or adapted with an array of impacts. Economic cycles are associated with a variety of innovations , including transportation, influencing economic opportunities for production, distribution, and consumption. No single transport mode has been solely responsible for economic growth. Instead, modes have been linked with the economic functions they support and the geography in which growth was taking place.
Major flows of international migration that occurred since the 18th century were linked with the expansion of international and continental transport systems that radically shaped emerging economies such as North America and Australia. Transport played a catalytic role in these migrations, transforming the economic and social geography of many nations. The goal to capture resource and market opportunities was a strong impetus in the setting and structure of transport networks.
The growth of container shipping has systematically been 3 to 4 times the GDP growth rate, underlining a significant multiplier effect between economic growth and container trade. Due to demographic pressures and urbanization, developing economies are characterized by a mismatch between the limited supply and growing demand for transport infrastructure.
While some regions benefit from the development of transport systems, others are often marginalized by a set of conditions in which inadequate transportation plays a role.
Transport by itself is not a sufficient condition for development. However, the lack of transport infrastructures can be a constraining factor on development.
The lack of transportation infrastructures and regulatory impediments are jointly impacting economic development by conferring higher transport costs, but also delays rendering supply chain management unreliable. A poor transport service level can negatively affect the competitiveness of regions and their economic activities and thus have a negative impact on the regional added value, economic opportunities, and employment.
Tools and measures are being developed to assess and compare the performance of national transportation systems. Logistic performance is commonly associated with economic opportunities. A common expectation is that transport investments will generate economic returns, which in the long run, should justify the initial capital commitment. While initial infrastructure investments tend to have a high return since they provide an entirely new range of mobility options, the more the system is developed, the more likely additional investment would lower returns.
At some point, the marginal returns can be close to zero or even negative. A common fallacy assumes that additional transport investments will have a similar multiplying effect than the initial investments had, which can lead to capital misallocation. The most common reasons for the declining marginal returns of transport investments are:.
Therefore, each transport development project must be considered independently and contextually. Since transport infrastructures are capital intensive fixed assets, they are particularly vulnerable to misallocations and malinvestments.
The standard assumption is that transportation investments tend to be more wealth-producing as opposed to wealth consuming investments such as services. In such a context, transport investment projects can be counterproductive by draining the resources of an economy instead of creating wealth and additional opportunities.
Since many transport infrastructures are provided through public funds, they can be subject to pressure by special interest groups, which can result in poor economic returns, even if those projects are often sold to the public as strong catalysts for growth. Further, large transportation projects, such as public transit, can have inadequate cost control mechanisms, implying systematic budget overruns.
Infrastructure projects in the United States are particularly prone to these engineered fallacies. Efficient and sustainable transport markets and systems play a key role in regional development, although the causality between transport and wealth generation is not always clear. Investment in transport infrastructures is thus seen as a tool of regional development, particularly in developing countries.
The relationship between transportation and economic development is difficult to formally establish and has been debated for many years. Transport markets and related transport infrastructure networks are key drivers in the promotion of more balanced and sustainable development, particularly by improving accessibility and the opportunities of less developed regions or disadvantaged social groups.
Initially, there are different impacts on transport providers transport companies and transport users. Cycles of economic development provide a revealing conceptual perspective about how transport systems evolve in time and space as they include the timing and the nature of the transport impact on economic development.
This perspective underlines that after a phase of introduction and growth, a transport system will eventually reach a phase of maturity through geographical and market saturation.
The outcome is surplus capacity in infrastructures and modes, creating deflationary pressures that undermine profitability. Because of their characteristics, several transport activities are highly synchronized with the level of economic activity.
For instance, if rail freight or maritime rates were to decline rapidly, this could be an indication of deteriorating economic conditions. Transport, as a technology, typically follows a path of experimentation, introduction, adoption, and diffusion and, finally, obsolescence, each of which has an impact on the rate of economic development. The most significant benefits and productivity gains are realized in the early to mid diffusion phases while later phases are facing diminishing returns.
Containerization is a relevant example of such a diffusion behavior as its productivity benefits were mostly derived in the s and s when economic globalization was accelerating. Some projects are eventually abandoned as the technology proves ineffective at addressing market or operational requirements or is too expensive for the benefits it conveys.
Since transportation is capital intensive, operators tend to be cautious before committing to new technologies and the significant sunk costs they require. This is particularly the case where transportation is capital intensive and has a long lifespan. In addition, transport modes and infrastructures are depreciating assets that continuously require maintenance and upgrades.
At some point, their useful lifespan is exceeded, and the vehicle must be retired or the infrastructure rebuilt. Thus, the amortization of transport investments must consider the lifespan of the concerned mode or infrastructure. Contemporary trends have underlined that economic development has become less dependent on relations with the environment resources and more dependent on relations across space.
While resources remain the foundation of economic activities, the commodification of the economy has been linked with higher levels of material flows of all kinds. Concomitantly, resources, capital, and even labor have shown increasing levels of mobility. This is particularly the case for multinational firms that can benefit from transport improvements in two significant markets:.
Transportation provides market accessibility by linking producers and consumers so that transactions can take place. Transportation is an economic factor of production of goods and services, implying that it is fundamental in their generation, even if it accounts for a small share of input costs. This means that irrespective of the cost, an activity cannot take place without the transportation factor and the mobility it provides. Thus, relatively small changes in transport cost, capacity, and performance can have substantial impacts on dependent economic activities.
An efficient transport system with modern infrastructures favors many economic changes, most of them positive. The major impacts of transport on economic factors can be categorized as follows:. Accordingly, many direct freighters, managers, shippers and indirect insurance, finance, packaging, handling, travel agencies, transit operators employment are associated with transport.
Producers and consumers make economic decisions on products, markets, costs, location, prices, which are based on transport services, availability, costs, capacity, and reliability. Skip to content Authors: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue and Dr. Theo Notteboom The development of transportation systems is embedded within the scale and context in which they take place, from the local to the global and from environmental, historical, technological, and economic perspectives.
Measure Well-Being to Improve It
The development of transportation systems is embedded within the scale and context in which they take place, from the local to the global and from environmental, historical, technological, and economic perspectives. Development can be defined as improving the welfare of a society through appropriate social, political, and economic conditions. The expected outcomes are quantitative and qualitative improvements in human capital e. The development of transportation systems takes place in a socioeconomic context. While development policies and strategies tend to focus on physical capital, recent years have seen a better balance by including human capital issues. Irrespective of the relative importance of physical versus human capital, development cannot occur without both interacting as infrastructures cannot remain effective without proper operations and maintenance.
India is one of the most populous countries in the world with a population in excess of 1. India has followed a different path of development from many other countries. India went more quickly from agriculture to services that tend to be less tightly regulated than heavy industry. That said there are some emerging manufacturing giants in the Indian economy. Despite optimism for India's prospects for economic growth and development, there are a number of obstacles which may yet see growth and development falter.
India was a colony of Great Britain until when the subcontinent was partitioned into two politically separate and independent countries: India and Pakistan. The partition resulted in a major political and economic upheaval in the subcontinent. Over the years, the principal objectives of planned development have been to build up within a democratic context: 1 a rapidly expanding and technologically progressive economy, and 2 a social order based on justice and offering equal opportunity to every person. Several of the achievements and the problems faced in the course of the development effort are discussed. Thanawala, K.
Economic development in India
Arabic Chinese French Russian Spanish. Text in PDF Format. Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,.
Is Inclusive Growth Possible?
This paper presents a new analytical framework for assessing spatial disparities among countries. Furthermore, an exploration of the trajectory that each country has registered over time along a virtuous path will be offered. One of the most interesting conclusions concerns the inability of most countries to turn the higher educational skills of the population into greater economic performance over time. In addition, our analysis also shows that making an accurate picture record and formulating related policy aiming at environmental care is highly desirable. It is surprising that only a few countries have reached a favourable economic and environmental performance simultaneously. This publication addresses the hypothesis that GNP or GDP per capita cannot be considered as the only indicator of the performance of a country because it does not capture the overall well-being of population. Nevertheless, it has become rather common to rank the performance of countries or regions by assessing their levels of development or growth in terms of GDP.
Search form Search. Home 2. A sound system for collection of Social Sector Statistics is vital for the effective development of social policy, for informed decision making on policy issues and for evaluation of the impact of social and economic polices. An inadequate system of collection and compilation of Social Statistics constitutes a major impediment to effective social development of the country. Reliable data on the above dimensions and use of these in planning, implementation, monitoring and redesigning of various developmental programmes is absolutely essential, if the country has to develop more rapidly than in the past. As a result, routine data on schools, students enrolled, hospitals, medical and para-medical personnel, births and deaths occurring in the population are just not collected due to a lack of proper emphasis on these items of information and the administrative back up for a compilation and analysis of the required data. Even though the provisional population totals on limited data are released within a month of the completion of fieldwork, a considerable delay in the processing and release of detailed final results still persists, which undermines the immense utility of this gigantic exercise.
Social economics is a branch of economics —and a social science—that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and economics.
Women migrant workers are often concentrated in informal, low paid and unregulated work. The main sectors in which women migrant workers are employed are: services and retail Journal of Human Capital, 10 1 , 1— Kolev , Does gender discrimination in social institutions matter for long-term growth?
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Хотя криптографы были убеждены, что система фильтров Сквозь строй предназначалась исключительно для защиты этого криптографического декодирующего шедевра, сотрудники лаборатории систем безопасности знали правду. Фильтры служили куда более высокой цели - защите главной базы данных АНБ. Чатрукьяну была известна история ее создания.