File Name: international refugee aid and social change in northern mali .zip
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- Once there was a lake: vulnerability to environmental changes in northern Mali
- The Paranoid Neighbor: Algeria and the Conflict in Mali
- Center for Strategic & International Studies
Vulnerability assessment is increasingly recognised as a starting point to identify climate adaptation needs and improve adaptive capacity. However, vulnerability assessments are challenging because of the complexity of multifaceted biophysical, human and institutional factors, interacting at different scales and levels within socio-ecological systems. Using a participatory approach across levels and genders, this paper explores the vulnerability of livestock- and forest-based livelihoods to climate variability and change in Lake Faguibine, northern Mali, where drastic ecological, political and social changes have occurred.
Since January , there has been persistent violence and instability in Mali and in the neighboring countries of Burkina Faso, Chad, and Niger. The conflict has evolved from a separatist rebellion in northern Mali to communal and extremist violence in wide swaths across the Sahel. The region has seen two coups in Mali, a popular uprising in Burkina Faso, and the first-ever civilian transition of power in Mauritania—with one pending in Niger. International and regional responses to the conflict have failed to blunt the escalating insecurity and accompanying humanitarian crises. To be sure, there has been a significant increase in funding; a proliferation of envoys, forums, and ad-hoc coalitions; and more muscular military operations.
Once there was a lake: vulnerability to environmental changes in northern Mali
Following the outbreak of violence in the Gao, Kidal, and Timbuktu regions of Mali, hundreds of thousands of people have fled northern Mali and sought refuge with host communities and in refugee camps in neighbouring countries. As conflict continues in northern Mali, the situation is expected to further deteriorate and pastoral populations are expected to migrate throughout the region in greater numbers. The situation has been exacerbated by an on-going food crisis in eight countries in the Sahel, including Mali, Mauritania, Burkina Faso, and Niger. WFP estimates that 7 million people are in need of food assistance in these four countries and is responding to the drought through operations at the country level, guided by the WFPregional response framework for the Sahel. Home Operation database
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The Paranoid Neighbor: Algeria and the Conflict in Mali
Why does it matter? As violence takes on a communal character, civilians, men and women of all ages, are more frequently targeted based on their ethnicity alone. The presence of the state is dangerously waning, with jihadists and armed self-defence groups controlling more and more territory. What should be done? They should use both carrots and sticks to encourage demobilisation of militias, and seek to resolve land conflicts that are often the root cause of violence. Since , an unprecedented wave of violence has swept across an area of central Mali to the south and south east of Mopti. The attackers — jihadists, the self-defence groups mobilised against them and others — target civilians in acts of mass killing, theft and property destruction.
This literature review aims to reflect relevant empirical and policy analysis together with more up-to-date commentary on the situation in Mali, as of January The conflict in Mali is highly complex and fluid: the situation with regards to the various groups engaged in conflict is developing on a daily basis, as are the responses from local and international actors. Previous Tuareg rebellions in the post-colonial period took place in , the s and The current conflict began with the Tuareg attack in January , and although the situation has since evolved, this renewed instability illustrates that structural problems in Mali have yet to be resolved. Therefore, whilst each new conflict has its own proximate drivers, they are related to unresolved issues spilling over from previous conflicts. The following recommendations have emerged for preventing further escalation and resolving the conflict:.
attention must be given to the impact of international aid and development programmes The interface between refugee aid and social change in northern Mali must be seen in and having learnt to read, write and improve their manual skills.
Center for Strategic & International Studies
Refugee crisis can refer to difficulties and dangerous situations in the reception of large groups of forcibly displaced persons. These could be either internally displaced , refugees , asylum seekers or any other huge groups of migrants. A crisis could occur within the country, while attempting to leave, or while on the move to a safe country, or even after arrival in a country of asylum.
As the crisis in Mali threatens to grow into a full-fledged regional security and humanitarian nightmare, nervous neighboring countries are looking to Algeria to lead a conflict management effort. In many ways Algeria has always wanted recognition as a regional leader. Yet, Algiers worries about being dragged into a Saharan quagmire and seems reluctant or unable to maintain stability in its backyard. Algiers, critical to the success of conflict management and resolution in the region, is in a unique position to influence events in Mali. Bolstering the political transition in Bamako should be a priority.
NCBI Bookshelf. Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
В шифровалке никогда еще не было так тихо, здесь всегда слышался гул генераторов. Теперь все умолкло, так что можно было различить облегченный вздох раненого чудовища - ТРАНСТЕКСТА, постепенно стихающее шипение и посвистывание, сопутствующие медленному охлаждению. Сьюзан закрыла глаза и начала молиться за Дэвида. Ее молитва была проста: она просила Бога защитить любимого человека. Не будучи религиозной, она не рассчитывала услышать ответ на свою молитву, но вдруг почувствовала внезапную вибрацию на груди и испуганно подскочила, однако тут же поняла: вибрация вовсе не была рукой Божьей - она исходила из кармана стратморовского пиджака.
Бармен с любезной улыбкой протянул Беккеру стакан: - A su gusto, senor. Клюквенный сок и капелька водки. Беккер поблагодарил .