File Name: types of soil and its uses .zip
This section gives you loads of activity sheets to download and copy. They will help you learn more about soil and its properties hopefully whilst having fun! Most of the sheets also have a teachers page attached as well as the student sheet.
Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil material containing clay minerals. Clay is the oldest known ceramic material. Prehistoric humans discovered the useful properties of clay and used it for making pottery. Between one-half and two-thirds of the world's population still live or work in buildings made with clay, often baked into brick, as an essential part of its load-bearing structure. Clay is a very common substance.
Common soil types
Based on the characteristics of Lycoris aurea L. We found that there existed significant differences in the contents of mineral elements and the activities of soil enzymes urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase etc. Among which, the contents of organic matters, alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen, Ca and Mg as well as the activities of soil enzymes in humus soil were the highest ones. In yellow-brown soil, except for Fe, the values of all the other items were the lowest ones. Net photosynthetic rate P n , biomass and lycorine content in humus soil were all the highest ones, which were increased by Stepwise multiple regression analysis and path analysis indicated that alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen, and Ca etc.
Thus, humus soil can be used as medium suitable for artificial cultivation of L. Herb L. It is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb plant 1. Its bulb is rich in more than 10 types of alkaloids, including lycorine, galanthamine and lycoramine etc.
It also possesses certain anti-cancer effects and has been used in treating cancer. Thus, it has important medicinal value 2. Lycorine belongs to pyrrolo-phenanthridine alkaloid within the class of isoquinoline alkaloids and is one of the major components of the anti-cancer alkaloids present in the plants in the family Amaryllidaceae 3 , 4.
Moreover, L. Its bulb is also rich in starch and galanthus nivalis agglutinin. Thus, it is valuable to be widely applied in many fields, including landscape garden, industry and agriculture 5.
Its bulb contains many types of abundant components such as alkaloids and has relatively higher ornamental value. Thus, there is increasing market demand on L.
However, in the recent years, the deterioration of the ecological environment and the over-artificial digging had led to the shortage of the resources of wild L.
Thus, to initiate the artificial cultivation of L. The quality of herb medicines is the comprehensive indicator reflecting certain cultivation technologies and ecological conditions under which the medicinal plants grow. Among which, soil serves as an essential medium for supporting plant growth and development, and thus, it has important influences on the growth, development and the medicinal quality of herb plants 6.
The nutritional elements e. N, P, K, Ca, and Mg etc. These elements are not only the important sources of materials for building up the structures of plant tissues, but also are actively involved in the metabolic activities within plants 7. Soil enzymes are one type of the most important biological components of the soil ecosystem.
They play an important role in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling For instance, the hydroxylases e. The activities of soil enzymes are closely related to soil physicochemical properties, soil types, and fertilizer application, cultivation and other agricultural measures 13 , Alkaloids are an important class of plant secondary metabolites and the result of the interactions between plants and their environments both biotic and abiotic during the long-term evolution process 15 , Different types of soil possess different textures and physiochemical properties while the demands of different types of medicinal herb plants for suitable soil conditions are quite different.
Thus, the types of soil for cultivation of medicinal herb plants should be selected according to the particular physiological requirements of the particular plants 6 , Currently, most of the studies on L. In term of cultivation, Zeng et al. However, the studies on the effects of soil conditions on the growth and development of L.
Thus, it is necessary to select suitable soil conditions for artificial cultivation of L. In this study, based on the characteristics of its natural distribution patterns, we selected four representative types of soil with different textures and physiochemical properties for conducting the controlled experiments on the cultivation of L. As shown in Table 1 , there were significant differences in pH value, the contents of soil moisture, organic matter, alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen, rapidly available phosphorus, rapidly available kalium, Ca and Mg etc.
Among which, the contents of organic matter, alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen, Ca and Mg were the richest ones in humus soil, which were The Fe content in yellow-brown soil was the highest one. The contents of soil moisture, rapidly available phosphorus, rapidly available kalium, Zn, Mn and Cu in garden soil were higher but its Mo content was extremely low.
The Mo content in sandy soil was the highest one while the contents of the remaining compositions were between the other types of soil. The humus soil, sandy soil and garden soil were all alkalescent while yellow-brown soil was acidic. DW represents dry weight. Different types of cultivation soil had different impacts on the major agronomic trials of L. The biomass performances, the bulb diameter, floral axis height, leaf length and leaf width were all the highest ones in humus soil, which were increased by Their performances in sandy soil and garden soil were between those of the humus soil and yellow-brown soil.
Different types of cultivation soil had different effects on photosynthetic parameters of L. Among which, the net photosynthetic rate P n , chlorophyll content, transpiration rate T r , intercellular CO 2 concentration C i and stomatal conductance G s were all the highest ones in humus soil.
Except for the lowest T r value in sandy soil, the performances of all the remaining parameters in yellow-brown soil were the poorest ones. Compared to those in yellow-brown soil, P n and chlorophyll content were significantly increased by FW represents fresh weight. As shown in Table 4 , there existed differences, to certain extend, in the activities of soil enzymes of L. Among which, the activities of soil enzymes in humus soil were the highest ones whereas those in yellow-brown soil were the lowest ones.
Compared to those in yellow-brown soil, the activities of urease, sucrase, phosphatase and catalase were significantly increased by 9. Among the soil enzymes tested, the activities of both urease and sucrase in four types of soil were also higher whereas the activity of catalase was the lowest one.
The chromatogram of the bulb sample of L. The lycorine content of L. Among which, the lycorine content of L. The measured values of the soil nutrients and mineral elements were taken as the soil factor group while the measured values of P n , biomass and lycorine content were taken as the L.
The soil factors were selected with stepwide multiple regression method. The stepwide multiple regression equations between the L. As shown in Table 5 , the significant soil factors influencing leaf P n were alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen X 4 and Mo X 14 while the significant soil factor influencing the biomass was alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen X 4 ; the significant soil factors influencing the lycorine content were alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen X 4 , Ca X 7 and soil moisture X 2.
Thus, the significant soil factors influencing the medicinal quality of L. In order to further confirm the key soil factors significantly influencing P n , biomass and lycorine content of L. As shown in Table 6 , the effects of alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen on P n , biomass and lycorine content of L. Mo had little direct effect on leaf P n of L. Thus, the key soil factors significantly influencing P n , biomass and lycorine content of L. R 2 represents coefficient of determination.
However, the increasing demand on L. One of the effective ways to resolve this contradiction is to artificially cultivate it in large-scale. Selection of appropriate types of soil for artificial cultivation of L. In the present study, we selected four representative types of soil, i. We determined that humus soil could be the suitable soil type for artificial cultivation of L. Furthermore, we also found that the key soil factors significantly influencing P n , biomass and lycorine content of L.
Different types of soil have quite different physicochemical and biological properties, which have substantial effects on the growth, development and the active constituents of medicinal plants Thus, different plants have different demands for appropriate type s of soil. For instance, Liu et al. The results obtained from this study have indicated that the humus soil displays the best comprehensive performances in both agronomic trials and physiological and biochemical characteristics including P n , biomass and lycorine content of L.
The differences in comprehensive performances are partially due to the significant differences in texture, pH value and organic matter etc. In this study, measurement of the general physicochemical properties of cultivation soils revealed that humus soil was rich in organic matter content with its looser texture and better permeability.
Humus soil, sandy soil and garden soil were all alkalescent while yellow-brown soil was acidic. The correlation analysis revealed that the soil pH value displayed a positive correlation with the lycorine content of L. This result was consistent with that obtained by Chao et al. Furthermore, path analysis indicated that value for the direct effect of soil moisture on the lycorine content was negative, implying that high soil moisture content may be unfavorable for the accumulation of alkaloids such as lycorine in L.
This result was consistent with those obtained by El-Shazly et al. The rich organic matter that was constantly decomposed in humus soil can provide the stable supply of nitrogen nutrients etc.
The physicochemical properties of humus soil, i. Deficiency or shortage of any of the nutritional elements e. Nitrogen is the most important element among all the nutritional elements required by plants For instance, the biosynthetic processes of alkaloids require nitrogen involvement.
The increased, adequate or surplus nitrogen source was found to be favorable for the biosynthesis of alkaloids in Larkspur The present study indicated that the contents of alkaline-hydrolysable nitrogen and Ca in humus soil were higher than those in the poorest yellow-brown soil. Its biomass and the lycorine content were increased substantially. Stepwide multiple regression analysis and path analysis indicated that alkaline-hydrolysable nitrogen was the most important soil factor, and Ca is the secondary factor, implying that the higher contents of alkaline-hydrolysable nitrogen and Ca in humus soil are favorable not only for the growth and development of L.
These results also further confirm that nitrogen nutrient and Ca are the important environment factors stimulating plant growth and the biosynthesis of alkaloids. NO 3 -N and NH 4 -N are two major forms of nitrogen nutrients that are absorbed and utilized by plants. The effectiveness of these two forms of nitrogen element on the growth and development of plants are dependent on the types of plants, the concentrations of NO 3 -N and NH 4 -N and their ratio.
The absorption, transport and assimilation during the metabolism processes and the effects on the growth, development and physiological processes are significantly different
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Soil can be categorised into sand, clay, silt, peat, chalk and loam types of soil based on the dominating size of the particles within a soil. Sandy Soil is light, warm, dry and tend to be acidic and low in nutrients. Sandy soils are often known as light soils due to their high proportion of sand and little clay clay weighs more than sand. These soils have quick water drainage and are easy to work with. They are quicker to warm up in spring than clay soils but tend to dry out in summer and suffer from low nutrients that are washed away by rain. The addition of organic matter can help give plants an additional boost of nutrients by improving the nutrient and water holding capacity of the soil. Clay Soil is a heavy soil type that benefits from high nutrients.
In the Standard Proctor Test, the soil is compacted by a 5. When moisture is added to the block it acts as lubricants between the soil particles. The rammer has a mass of 4. There are two basic types of laboratory compaction test. Here we are talking about the three methods that include 2. One employs a standard weight falling onto a soil sample in a mold; the other is a standardized vibro-compaction test. Its process is almost same as Standard Proctor Test with … The mould is filled with three layers of soil and each layer is subjected to 25 blows of rammer.
What is Soil?
Soils are complex mixtures of minerals, water, air, organic matter, and countless organisms that are the decaying remains of once-living things. So then, what is dirt? Dirt is what gets on our clothes or under our fingernails. It is soil that is out of place in our world — whether tracked inside by shoes or on our clothes. There are seven general roles that soils play:.
Learn more. There is a variety of soils across Queensland. These soils are the cracking clay soils of the Darling Downs and Central Highlands. A large belt of grey and brown Vertosols also run from the New South Wales border to Charters Towers—corresponding with Brigalow forests. This soil type is usually associated with previous volcanic activity and is mainly located along the Great Dividing Range. Large areas of these soils occur around Kingaroy and Atherton where they are used for intensive crop production. Dermosols are red, brown, yellow, grey or black and have loam to clay textures.
Log In. Soil is a living, breathing, natural entity composed of solids, liquids, and gases. Soil has five major functions:. Our focus will be on the fifth function. In this role, soil provides structural stability for plants and retains and relinquishes water and the nutrients necessary for plant growth. This distribution rarely occurs because pore space varies with soil texture and soil management.
Based on the characteristics of Lycoris aurea L. We found that there existed significant differences in the contents of mineral elements and the activities of soil enzymes urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase etc.