File Name: rfid-enabled sensor design and applications creator.zip
- RFID Projects Ideas for Engineering Students
- Printed, flexible, compact UHF-RFID sensor tags enabled by hybrid electronics
- Farm Operation Monitoring System with Wearable Sensor Devices Including RFID
- ST25 NFC / RFID Tags & Readers
RFID Projects Ideas for Engineering Students
Molina-Farrugia, A. Rivadeneyra, J. Banqueri, M. An RFID tag with energy harvesting and sensing capabilities is presented in this paper.
This RFID tag is based on an integrated circuit SLA that incorporates a sensor front-end interface capable of measuring voltages, currents, resistances, and capacitances. The aim of this work is to improve the communication distance from the reader to the tag using energy harvesting techniques.
Once the energy source and harvester are chosen according to the environment of work, the conditioning circuit for energy management has to be appropriately designed with respect to the nature of the transductor. As a proof of concept, a photovoltaic panel is used in this work to collect the energy from the environment that is managed by a DC-DC converter and stored in a capacitor acting as battery.
Such energy is used to support the power system of the tag, giving autonomy to the device and allowing data logging. In particular, the developed tag monitors the ambient temperature and the power voltage. It would be possible to add external sensors without changing the architecture. This feature is especially interesting in environments where the access could be difficult. The possibility of performing measurements using wireless techniques and sensing motes without batteries could be very suitable in many situations, such as vacuum environments or frozen food packages.
If these wireless techniques are based on radiofrequency identification RFID protocol, the effective cost would be reduced thanks to mass production of this type of integrated circuits. Furthermore, the mote would be identified univocally. Environmental monitoring activities have found the key to another emerging technology of recent years, namely, Wireless Sensor Networks WSNs.
The integration of RFID and WSN allows higher system performance and new promising applications, such as the new paradigm of the Internet of Things IoT , which is noticeably gaining space in the scenario of modern wireless communications, novel medical applications, and wearable systems, among others [ 1 — 3 ].
RFID tags with sensing capabilities normally require extra circuitry and battery to be able to acquire and process data. This increases the cost of the tag and could require battery replacement. There are also some examples of single chip architecture without a microcontroller unit [ 19 — 23 ]. In these strategies, the main advantage compared to the analog read of the tag is the direct processing of the sensor data in the RFID tag. In addition to this, batteries are also essential when RFID tags monitor their parameters in an autonomous mode, allowing data logging.
One solution to reduce the tag cost and the inconveniences of replacing batteries is the inclusion of an energy harvesting EH module in the tag. This module would take advantage of the available environmental energy photovoltaic energy, RF energy, mechanical vibrations, etc. In this regard, different strategies have been followed to integrate a harvester module in RFID tags.
For example, Shameli et al. The main concern of this work is to optimize the harvester circuit design through CMOS fabrication processes to achieve maximum sensitivity; in particular, it is based on a 0. This optimized system is characterized by an impedance transformation circuit whose purpose is to boost the input RF signal in order to improve the circuit performance.
Wilas et al. The goal is to maximize the power delivered to the rectifier of the tag while minimizing the reflections from the antenna input port. These two impedances become the key to find the optimal matching parameters in order to improve the performance of the low pass matching circuit.
The maximum DC voltage reaches a value of 1. Another approach operating to harvest RF energy is presented by Sample et al. The WISP is a programmable platform governed by a bit ultralow-power microcontroller and powered through EH without the need of an external battery. The list of sensors which have already been successfully integrated in the platform leverage different resources, such as temperature, ambient light, and gravity orientation. De Donno et al. They used a simple voltage regulator using a Zener diode together with a supercapacitor to develop a semipassive UHF RFID tag via solar harvested power, showing the operating read range under different environmental conditions.
In all RFID strategies it is essential to properly design the antenna for power optimization purposes, but in the case of energy harvesting it could be also important as an energy source, harvesting the RF energy [ 32 ] called rectenna devices. The RFID tag presented in this work is based on a solar cell, too, but with several and important improvements with respect to the previous works.
As the main novelty, a DC-DC buck converter is used instead of a charge pump [ 24 — 26 ] or linear regulator [ 25 , 29 ] as other authors have previously done. The DC-DC controller circuit used in the present work is aimed to energise ultra-low power below mW applications.
In order to design an autonomous system based on this technique [ 33 ], the environment is essential in the interest of selecting the most adequate energy source. We have chosen one of the most common and easy to find ones, which is the light. The read range was measured and compared in the first and third situations. The use as data logger was tested logging a temperature swing, using the internal temperature sensor of the RFID chip.
In this section, we describe the architecture of the system, which is shown in Figure 1. The first one contains the RFID chip and the antenna and the second one the energy harvesting IC with its associated circuitry and the transductor.
Both modules are described below. In this case, we are going to perform only temperature tracking, but the monitoring of other magnitudes would be straightforward by properly connecting the sensor to the chip SFE [ 23 , 34 ]. Temperature value comes from the in-built sensor of the RFID chip. Depending on these voltage references, a concrete range and resolution can be chosen by the user.
In our case, we have selected the highest resolution 0. In our case, an electrolytic capacitor has been used instead of battery to store the energy from the photovoltaic panel or antenna.
The external power interface can be configured for requiring 1. Regarding the antenna, the design chosen was a dipole antenna whose final dimensions of its arms are 5. These arms were bended to reduce the occupied area. This dipole was designed to get the same real part of the impedance as the RFID chip, whereas the matching of the imaginary part was achieved by placing on one of its arms a SMD inductor series of 47 nH TE Connectivity, Ltd. The energy harvester module is composed of a solar cell and a buck converter, as Figure 2 shows.
Once energy source and harvester are chosen, the conditioning circuit for energy management has to be designed taking into account the nature of the transductor, in order to power an electronic subsystem. In our case, the output of a solar cell will vary considerably depending on the amount of light present in the environment, subject to many factors time of the day, outdoors, indoors, etc.
The energy harvester source is connected to an internal low-loss full-wave bridge rectifier in order to increase the efficiency. Thus, AC and DC signal can be used as energy harvester source.
The LTC includes the switch and the diode on the buck converter; thus, only the inductor has to be added.
In our case, the 1. This integrated circuit is optimized for high output impedance energy sources such as piezoelectric transducers; however, it can be used with solar cells using the same configuration, provided that the solar cell has high output impedance. These voltages agree with the harvester circuit constraints and they are high enough for the EH module to provide 1.
The lightning of the test room was characterized using the digital light meter V RS Amidata, UK , and a value of lux of a fluorescent lamp was obtained. Smaller cells can be used but we selected this one for testing purposes. Figure 2 presents the configuration used to collect photovoltaic energy and store it and provide power to the RFID chip.
As external components, four capacitors and one inductor are required to condition the EH chip. In our case, the PGood pin was remained floating because it was not necessary to trigger any device. Considering the previously defined harvesting circuit, several ohmic loads were connected to the output of the EH module in order to characterize the harvested output current.
Also, a 4. Figure 3 shows the fabricated and mounted RFID tag. The size of this tag can be easily reduced by not including the test points and reallocating the components. This RFID tag can be active, that is, it is capable of autonomous communicating, or semipassive, when it transmits its data thanks to the energy provided by the reader. The operation mode is going to be determined by the final application of the energy collected by the energy harvester. As it can be observed, all scenarios show virtually the same tendency.
The value obtained was The measurements were taken at room temperature, without any control of this magnitude. Furthermore, there is an increase of temperature over time in the three scenarios. This result can be associated with a self-heating effect of the RFID chip when measurements are taken consecutively. As expected, this voltage is constant when the RFID reader is activated; therefore, we only monitored the autonomous scenario, in which the EH module is the one to provide the energy to the tag and the RFID reader is deactivated.
Figure 5 illustrates the monitoring of the battery level in the autonomous scenario. This voltage is constant 1. Then, we disconnected the EH module, forcing the capacitor to discharge in Figure 2. Although the voltage supplied by the solar cell is above the minimum working voltage of the RFID chip, the energy collected below 1.
This time could be easily enlarged by increasing this capacitance. The use of the EH module enhances the read range as it will be shown in this section. Therefore, the maximum distance between the reader and the tag can be increased.
According to the theory of communication in RFID systems [ 35 , 36 ], the maximum reading distance is calculated using the following equation: where refers to the tag antenna gain, refers to the reader antenna gain, refers to the effective power radiated by the reader, is the losses coefficient due to mismatching between RFID chip and antenna impedances, PLF is the polarization factor, and is the RFID chip sensitivity minimum received power to activate the tag.
The PLF factor adjusts the polarization mismatch between the reader antenna circular polarization and the designed antenna tag lineal polarization , and it has a value of 0. According to our setup and 1 , we have estimated a maximum read range of 2. After that, we performed the read range measurement with the commercial tag and we obtained an experimental value of 2.
This is because of the variation of the chip impedance with the working frequency and the different powers levels. Therefore, the real antenna performance is lower than the one obtained by simulation.
This extra-power is required to drive the SFE. Experimentally, a read range of 1. The read range of the simulated antennas is larger than that obtained for the fabricated tags.
Printed, flexible, compact UHF-RFID sensor tags enabled by hybrid electronics
To address this problem, we present FlexRFID, a modeling template composed of state indicators, conditions, a simulation engine, and a device-independent deployment architecture for rapid prototyping of control applications using RFID and sensor hardware. The modeling technique is based on Moore Machines, a variant of finite state automata that allow states to be associated with outputs. With FlexRFID, users design applications by modeling business logic via transition of states based on sensor events. Outputs associated with individual states can handle operational characteristics of the application. In this article, we present the modeling methodology and demonstrate how organizations can develop complex applications easily using FlexRFID. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
RFID is a tracking system which uses intelligent bar codes to track items in a store. RFID finds many applications including Access management, tracking goods, Tracing human beings and animals, Toll collection, Non contact payment etc. So, here, we are providing the list of various RFID projects which are useful for engineering students in final year to complete their B. Tech successfully. Read this list of projects ideas and get new thoughts and ideas to build new projects based on RFID.
Farm Operation Monitoring System with Wearable Sensor Devices Including RFID
However, it is difficult to realize such monitoring automatically and precisely, because agricultural fields are widely spaced and have few infrastructures, monitoring targets vary according to crop selection and other variables, and many operations are performed flexibly by manual labor. One approach to monitoring in open fields under harsh conditions is to use a sensor network Akyildiz et al. However, it is insufficient for obtaining detailed information about farming operations, because these operations are performed flexibly in every nook and cranny depending on crop and environment conditions. Several approaches have been used to monitor farming operations, including writing notes manually, using agricultural equipment with an automatic recording function, and monitoring operations with information technology IT -based tools. Keeping a farming diary is a common method, but it is troublesome to farmers and inefficient to share or use their hand-lettered information.
Molina-Farrugia, A. Rivadeneyra, J. Banqueri, M.
ST25 NFC / RFID Tags & Readers
- Дьявольщина. Джабба начал яростно отдирать каплю остывшего металла. Она отвалилась вместе с содранной кожей. Чип, который он должен был припаять, упал ему на голову. - Проклятие. Телефон звонил не переставая.
Дэвид! - крикнула. - Что… Но было уже поздно. Дэвид положил трубку. Она долго лежала без сна, ожидая его звонка. Но телефон молчал. В подавленном настроении Сьюзан приняла ванну. Она окунулась в мыльную пену и попыталась забыть о Стоун-Мэнор и Смоки-Маунтинс.
Ответа не последовало. Сьюзан повернулась к Соши. - Выход в Интернет.
Но за три дня до голосования в конгрессе, который наверняка бы дал добро новому стандарту. молодой программист из лаборатории Белл по имени Грег Хейл потряс мир, заявив, что нашел черный ход, глубоко запрятанный в этом алгоритме. Черный ход представлял собой несколько строк хитроумной программы, которые вставил в алгоритм коммандер Стратмор.
На стене ожила связанная с компьютером диаграмма. Сьюзан рассеянно подняла на нее глаза, безучастная к царившему вокруг нее безумию. Все в комнате дружно повернули головы. Диаграмма чем-то напоминала бычий глаз.