Routes Of Drug Administration Their Advantages And Disadvantages Pdf

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Alternative routes of drug administration - Advantages and disadvantages (subject review)

The way in which medicines are administered will to some extent influence their clinical benefit and whether patients experience any adverse effects. For example, if IV furosemide is administered too quickly, it can cause deafness, while oral penicillin V will not be well absorbed if given with food. Route of administration and formulation — tablet, capsule, liquid — can influence the bioavailability of a drug. Bioavailability is the proportion of a drug that reaches the systemic circulation and is therefore available for distribution to the intended site of action. Some drugs that are particularly well absorbed by the gastrointestinal mucosa may have bio-availability comparable with that of an IV dose, for example the antibiotic ciprofloxacin.

Introduction to Basics of Pharmacology and Toxicology pp Cite as. It becomes more than essential for a clinical pharmacologist to understand the various principles and modes of drug administration, since these are clinically relevant in therapeutics, and helps in avoiding any potential harm to patients receiving these drugs. While there are several principles of drug administration, the five important ones are: the right patient, the right drug, the right dose, the right time and the right route of administration. Modes or routes of drug administration vary from the widely followed oral route to parenteral and inhalational routes. There also exist certain specialized routes and modes of drug delivery, like the liposomal delivery, prodrug delivery and others. Each of these routes of administration has its own pros and cons, which have to be weighed against each other before choosing the same. This chapter deals about the key principles and routes or modes of drug administration.

Principles and Modes of Drug Administration

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Published on Apr 1, It will provide you a complete journey through the routes of drug administration, with all the basics covered I hope this presentation will make your fundamentals crystal clear. SlideShare Explore Search You.

The parenteral route also referred to as injection route is the fastest and the second commonest route of drug administration. The term parenteral is made up of two words — par meaning beyond and enteral meaning intestine. Hence, we can say that parenteral administration literally means introduction of substances into the body by routes other than the gastrointestinal tract but practically the term is applied to injection of substances in form of solution or suspension into the body at various sites and to varying depths using a needle usually a hypodermic needle and a syringe. The most important and most frequently used parenteral routes are intravenous route IV , intramuscular route IM , and subcutaneous route SC. Other less frequent routes specialized parenteral routes are summarized below. Intraspinal route: This involves the administration of a drug within the vertebral column.

The administration of a medicine is a common but important clinical procedure. It is the manner in which a medicine is administered that will determine to some extent whether or not the patient gains any clinical benefit, and whether they suffer any adverse effect from their medicines. For example, intravenous IV furosemide administered too quickly can cause deafness; oral penicillin V given with food will not be well absorbed; over-application of topical steroids will cause thinning of the skin and may lead to systemic side-effects. Two main factors determine whether or not a drug will reach its intended site of action in the body:. Bioavailability is the proportion of an administered drug that reaches the systemic circulation and is therefore available for distribution to the intended site of action. Some drugs that are particularly well absorbed by the gastrointestinal mucosa may have bioavailability comparable to that of an IV dose — for example the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Most drugs do not have this availability by the oral route so the dose given orally is usually higher than that given parenterally.

Drug Administration

Administration of substances to laboratory animals requires careful consideration and planning to optimize delivery of the agent to the animal while minimizing potential adverse experiences from the procedure. For all species, many different routes are available for administration of substances. The research team and IACUC members should be aware of reasons for selecting specific routes and of training and competency necessary for personnel to use these routes effectively. Once a route is selected, issues such as volume of administration, site of delivery, pH of the substance, and other factors must be considered to refine the technique.

Parenteral Route of Drug Administration: Advantages and Disadvantages

A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug , fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied.

Route of administration

It refers to the right path or the required route through which a drug has to be administered into the body to obtain maximum benefit. Routes of drug administration refer to the right path or the required route through which a drug has to be administered into the body to obtain maximum benefit. A drug administered into the body undergoes several chemical and metabolic changes.

Given by injection into a vein intravenously, IV , into a muscle intramuscularly, IM , into the space around the spinal cord intrathecally , or beneath the skin subcutaneously, sc. Breathed into the lungs, usually through the mouth by inhalation or mouth and nose by nebulization. See also Introduction to Administration and Kinetics of Drugs. Many drugs can be administered orally as liquids, capsules, tablets, or chewable tablets. Because the oral route is the most convenient and usually the safest and least expensive, it is the one most often used. However, it has limitations because of the way a drug typically moves through the digestive tract. For drugs administered orally, absorption may begin in the mouth and stomach.

 У вирусов есть линии размножения, приятель. Тут ничего такого. Сьюзан с трудом воспринимала происходящее. - Что же тогда случилось? - спросил Фонтейн.  - Я думал, это вирус.


Most of the drugs can be administered by different routes. The absorption pattern, advantages, and disadvantages of the most common routes of administration.


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ГЛАВА 124 - Атаке подвергся последний щит. На ВР отчетливо было видно, как уничтожалось окно программной авторизации. Черные всепроникающие линии окружили последний предохранительный щит и начали прорываться к сердцевине банка данных. Алчущие хакеры прорывались со всех уголков мира. Их количество удваивалось каждую минуту. Еще немного, и любой обладатель компьютера - иностранные шпионы, радикалы, террористы - получит доступ в хранилище секретной информации американского правительства. Пока техники тщетно старались отключить электропитание, собравшиеся на подиуме пытались понять расшифрованный текст.

Стратмор пожал плечами. - Слабое сердце… да к тому же еще испанская жара. Не забывай и о сильнейшем стрессе, связанном с попыткой шантажировать наше агентство… Сьюзан замолчала. Какими бы ни были обстоятельства, она почувствовала боль от потери талантливого коллеги-криптографа. Мрачный голос Стратмора вывел ее из задумчивости.

 - К вашему сведению, ваш ТРАНСТЕКСТ перегрелся. - Что ты говоришь? - засмеялся Стратмор.  - Что же ты предлагаешь.

 Будь у них штат побольше, прослушивали. Сьюзан оставила это замечание без ответа. - У правительств должно быть право собирать информацию, в которой может содержаться угроза общественной безопасности.

 - Можешь выражаться яснее. Две минуты спустя Джабба мчался вниз к главному банку данных. ГЛАВА 85 Грег Хейл, распластавшись, лежал на полу помещения Третьего узла. Стратмор и Сьюзан отволокли его туда через шифровалку и связали ему руки и ноги толстым кабелем от одного из лазерных принтеров. Сьюзан до сих пор была ошеломлена ловкими действиями коммандера.

Стратмор и его высокопоставленные посетители попадали в шифровалку и уходили незаметно для остальных сотрудников.

4 Response
  1. Jessika O.

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  2. Ryan M.

    might expected from their administration be able to describe the biopharmaceutically relevant advantages and disadvantages of various routes.

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