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This article focuses on a specific type of military—civilian relations which occurs within defence organizations between military personnel and civilian public servants.

Intergroup Behaviour and the Nature of Prejudice

Intergroup relations refers to interactions between individuals in different social groups , and to interactions taking place between the groups themselves collectively. It has long been a subject of research in social psychology , political psychology , and organizational behavior.

In , Muzafer Sherif proposed a now-widely recognized definition of intergroup relations:. Whenever individuals belonging to one group interact, collectively or individually, with another group or its members in terms of their group identification, we have an instance of intergroup behavior. Research on intergroup relations involves the study of many psychological phenomena related to intergroup processes including social identity , prejudice , group dynamics , and conformity among many others.

Research in this area has been shaped by many notable figures and continues to provide empirical insights into modern social issues such as social inequality and discrimination. While philosophers and thinkers have written about topics related to intergroup relations dating back to Aristotle 's Politics , [5] the psychological study of group attitudes and behavior began in the late 19th century.

Le Bon proposed that a group of individuals is different from the sum of its parts often paraphrased as "a group is more than the sum of its parts". This fundamental idea of crowd psychology states that when individuals form a group, this group behaves differently than each individual would normally act. Le Bon theorized that when individuals formed a group or crowd, there would emerge a new psychological construct which would be shaped by the group's " racial [collective] unconscious.

The empirical study of intergroup relations, as well as the broader field of social psychology , grew tremendously in the years following World War II. The events of World War II , including the rise of Adolf Hitler and Fascism , the Holocaust , and the widespread use of propaganda , led many social scientists to study intergroup conflict , obedience , conformity , dehumanization , and other related phenomena.

Muzafer Sherif was briefly detained by the Turkish government in for his pro-communist and anti-fascist beliefs. The cognitive revolution in psychology in the s and 60s led researchers to study how cognitive biases and heuristics influence beliefs and behavior.

The Civil Rights Movement of the s and 60s led social scientists to study prejudice , discrimination , and collective action in the context of race in America. Board of Education lawsuit. In , Martin Luther King spoke at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association urging social scientists to advance causes of social justice in their research. Intergroup relations research in the final decades of the 20th century refined earlier theories and applied insights from the field in real-world settings.

For example, Lee Ross applied his research on correspondence biases and attributional errors in his work on the conflict resolution process in Northern Ireland during The Troubles.

Other researchers have focused on positive elements of intergroup behavior, including helping , cooperation , and altruism between groups. Researchers have also applied intergroup theories to workplace settings; one such example is Richard Hackman's work on creating and managing groups or teams in the workplace. Hackman proposed that teams and work groups are successful when specific conditions are met. Specifically, when members of the team and their clients are satisfied, team members are able to grow professionally, and team members find their work meaningful.

The advancement of technology has also shaped the study of intergroup relations, first with the adoption of computer software and later with the utilization of neuro-imaging techniques such as fMRI. Gordon Allport developed this hypothesis, which states that contact with members of another social group in the appropriate circumstances can lead to a reduction of prejudice between majority and minority group members. Groups must:.

Some researchers have critiqued the contact hypothesis , specifically its generalizability and the fact that intergroup contact can result in an increase rather than decrease in prejudice. Realistic Conflict Theory RCT , also known as Realistic Group Conflict Theory RGCT , is a model of intergroup conflict that describes how conflict and prejudice between groups stems from conflicting goals and competition for limited resources. Campbell and was later elaborated on in classic experiments by Muzafer Sherif and Carolyn Wood Sherif.

The boys in these groups then competed with each other and elicited hostile outgroup beliefs until a superordinate, cooperative goal was imposed that required the groups to work together resulted in decreased feelings of hostility. In the s and 80s, Henri Tajfel and John Turner proposed two connected theories of social identity, self-categorization theory and social identity theory , that together form a method for understanding the psychological processes underlying how individuals make sense of their identities and group membership.

Self-categorization theory explains the contexts in which an individual perceives a collection of people as a group and the psychological processes that result from an individual perceiving people in terms of a group. Social identity theory describes how individual identity is shaped by membership in a social group. The social identity approach has had a wide-ranging impact on social psychology , influencing theory on topics such as social influence , [40] self-stereotyping , [41] and personality.

Early research on intergroup relations focused on understanding the processes behind group interactions and dynamics, constructing theories to explain these processes and related psychological phenomena. Theories from intergroup relations research have informed many approaches to prejudice reduction.

Researchers have focused on developing theoretical frameworks for understanding how to effectively reduce intergroup conflict and prejudice.

The intervention resulted in reduced implicit bias up to two months after the intervention was administered. Meta-analyses of implicit bias reduction studies have shown that many produce limited effects that do not persist outside of a laboratory setting.

Social scientists have examined phenomena related to social inequality such as poverty , disenfranchisement , and discrimination since the early days of social psychology. A majority of research on social inequality has principally focused on single categories such as race and gender.

Increasingly, more researchers are exploring the effects of how the intersection of identities affect individual and group psychological processes. Kurt Lewin is considered to be one of the founding fathers of social psychology and made major contributions to psychological research.

Lewin coined the term group dynamics to describe how individuals and groups behave differently depending on their environmental context. The theory behind this formula, which emphasizes that context shapes behavior in conjunction with an individual's motivations and beliefs, is a cornerstone of social psychological research. The American social psychologist Gordon Allport is considered to be one of the pioneers of the psychological study of intergroup relations.

Especially influential is Allport's book The Nature of Prejudice , which proposed the contact hypothesis and has provided a foundation for research on prejudice and discrimination since the mids. Beyond his theoretical contributions to the field, Allport mentored many students who would go on to make important contributions of their own to intergroup relations research.

Muzafer Sherif and Carolyn Wood Sherif performed multiple notable experiments on the subject in the midth century including the Robbers Cave experiments ; these experiments formed the basis for realistic conflict theory.

Carolyn Wood Sherif , along with Muzafer Sherif and Carl Hovland , developed social judgment theory , a model for self-persuasion that explains how individuals perceive and evaluate new ideas by comparing them with current attitudes.

Solomon Asch's work on conformity in the s also helped shape the study of intergroup relations by exploring how the social pressures of group membership influence individuals to adhere their behavior, attitudes, and beliefs to group norms. British psychologists Henri Tajfel and John Turner developed social identity theory and later self-categorization theory , pioneering the social identity approach in psychology in the s and 80s.

Tajfel and Turner were among the first psychologists to study the importance of social group membership and explore how the salience of an individual's group membership determined behavior and beliefs in the group context.

Lee Ross has conducted research on several psychological phenomena closely related to intergroup relations including the fundamental attribution error , belief perseverance , and most recently naive realism - the idea that individuals believe they see the world objectively and that those who disagree with them must be irrational or biased.

Susan Fiske , along with her colleagues Amy Cuddy , Peter Glick, and Jun Xu, developed the stereotype content model which states that stereotypes and intergroup impressions are formed along two dimensions: warmth and competence.

It follows that social groups that compete for real or perceived resources such as money or political power are considered low on warmth while social groups that are high-status e. Claude Steele and his colleagues Steve Spencer and Joshua Aronson are known for studying stereotype threat - the situational pressure one feels when they are at risk of confirming a negative stereotype about their group.

The IAT is used to test the strength of an individual's implicit automatic associations between mental representations and is commonly used in intergroup research to test implicit bias.

Recently, the validity of the IAT as a measure of implicit bias has been called into question. Jim Sidanius and Felicia Pratto developed social dominance theory , which states that most social groups are organized into hierarchies within developed societies.

Jennifer Richeson studies racial identity, social inequality , and interracial relations with a focus on understanding the psychological processes behind reactions to diversity. In , Richeson was awarded a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship for using mixed methods, including fMRI , to show that interracial contact reduces performance on inhibitory tasks because individuals engage in self-control behaviors to handle fears of appearing prejudiced whites or fears of being a target of prejudice blacks.

She has shown that police officers tend to identify black faces as criminals more often than white faces, [] that criminal defendants with more stereotypically black features were more likely to receive harsher sentences including the death penalty, [] and that when people think of black juvenile offenders they tend to perceive all juvenile offenders as more adult, resulting in higher levels of punishment.

Eberhardt received a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in for her research on the effects of racial bias and their societal consequences. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Applied psychology. Main article: Contact hypothesis.

Main article: Realistic conflict theory. Main articles: Social identity approach , Self-categorization theory , and Social identity theory. Main article: Kurt Lewin. Main article: Gordon Allport.

Main articles: Muzafer Sherif and Carolyn Sherif. Main article: Solomon Asch. Main articles: Henri Tajfel and John Turner psychologist.

Main article: Lee Ross. Main article: Susan Fiske. Main article: Claude Steele. Main article: Anthony Greenwald.

Main article: Jim Sidanius. Main article: Jennifer Richeson. Main article: Jennifer Eberhardt. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences.

Retrieved Wiley Encyclopedia of Management. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management. Social psychology. Fein, Steven. Belmont, CA: Cengage Wadsworth. Kraut, Richard, , Skultety, Steven. W In Lindzey, G; Aronson, E.

The Handbook of Social Psychology. New York: McGraw Hill. Drury, John. Abingdon, Oxfordshire. Lindzey, Gardner. New York: Random House. Dost-Gozkan, Ayfer. New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Intergroup relations

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Intergroup relations refers to interactions between individuals in different social groups , and to interactions taking place between the groups themselves collectively. It has long been a subject of research in social psychology , political psychology , and organizational behavior. In , Muzafer Sherif proposed a now-widely recognized definition of intergroup relations:. Whenever individuals belonging to one group interact, collectively or individually, with another group or its members in terms of their group identification, we have an instance of intergroup behavior. Research on intergroup relations involves the study of many psychological phenomena related to intergroup processes including social identity , prejudice , group dynamics , and conformity among many others. Research in this area has been shaped by many notable figures and continues to provide empirical insights into modern social issues such as social inequality and discrimination.

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Participation and Organization pp Cite as. Conflict, hostility, strife and prejudice may all be consequences of an intergroup relationship. Are the negative outcomes inevitable or can such consequences be controlled? In this chapter an attempt will be made to answer such questions.

Intergroup Behaviour & Collaboration

Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Conflicts over natural resources such as land, water, and forests are inevitable, ubiquitous, and will exist for the foreseeable future [1] [2] [3] [4]. However, there is still confusion about whether or not conflicts are desirable in natural resources management [5]. On the one hand, conflicts over natural resources are considered as negative phenomena because of their complexity and the unpredictability of their impact on these resources, and on both the interests and the well-being of the people involved [5] [6]. Indeed, conflicts over resources can sometimes become harsh and result in violence, resource degradation, the undermining of livelihoods, and uprooting of communities [2]. On the other hand, conflicts over natural resources have been seen as an important leverage for environment management by ensuring that the voices of the different stakeholders are heard and that new social demands are responded [5].

The well structured, well defined role and status hierarchy, able leadership, well developed norms and strong cohesiveness a group has, the greater is the groupthink. As a result, groups may cooperate or compete with other groups, and intergroup competition can lead to conflict. That is, in addition to conveying status to those outside the group, membership can also give increased feelings of worth to the group members themselves.

Больше всего похоже на требование выкупа. Слова Сьюзан прозвучали слабым, едва уловимым шепотом: - Это… Энсей Танкадо. Джабба повернулся и изумленно посмотрел на. - Танкадо. Сьюзан едва заметно кивнула: - Он требовал, чтобы мы сделали признание… о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ… это стоило ему… - Признание? - растерянно прервал ее Бринкерхофф.  - Танкадо требует, чтобы мы признали существование ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Но он несколько опоздал.

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1 Military-Civilian Integration and Collaboration

Стратмор кивнул: - Как раз сейчас японские компании скачивают зашифрованную версию Цифровой крепости и пытаются ее взломать. С каждой минутой, уходящей на эти бесплодные попытки, ее цена растет. - Но это же абсурд, - не согласилась Сьюзан.  - Ни один из новых шифрованных файлов нельзя вскрыть без ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Вероятно, Цифровая крепость - это стандартный алгоритм для общего пользования, тем не менее эти компании не смогут его вскрыть. - Это блистательная рекламная операция, - сказал Стратмор.

В этот момент в нескольких метрах под помещением шифровалки Стратмор сошел с лестницы на площадку. Сегодняшний день стал для него днем сплошных фиаско. То, что началось как в высшей степени патриотическая миссия, самым неожиданным образом вышло из-под контроля. Коммандер был вынужден принимать невероятные решения, совершать чудовищные поступки, на которые, как ему казалось раньше, не был способен. Это единственное решение.

Мои люди несколько дней пытаются его взломать. - Это зашифрованный вирус, болван; ваше счастье, что вам не удалось его вскрыть. - Но… - Сделка отменяется! - крикнул Стратмор.  - Я не Северная Дакота. Нет никакой Северной Дакоты. Забудьте о ней! - Он отключил телефон и запихнул за ремень. Больше ему никто не помешает.

The Role of Inter-School Collaboration in Promoting Inter-Group Relations

Он стал ждать, когда его компьютер разогреется, и Сьюзан занервничала.

Однако тот не подавал никаких признаков жизни. Сьюзан перевела взгляд на помост перед кабинетом Стратмора и ведущую к нему лестницу. - Коммандер.

 Вовсе. Пересек границу неделю. - Наверное, хотел сюда переехать, - сухо предположил Беккер.