Handbook Of Hemorheology And Hemodynamics Pdf

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Hemorheology

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The article by Cekirdekci and Bugan published in this issue of the Journal 1 opens up new prospects for improving our knowledge of microvascular angina MVA. There is now general consensus about both coronary microcirculation and macrocirculation. The authors selected biomarkers of hemorheology and inflammation and applied clinical methodology to diagnose and classify the patients and the control group. The statistical computation performed confirmed the value of the control group used, which in my opinion is more realistic than other control groups selected without comorbidities. As is well known, a compromised microcirculation leads to insufficient blood perfusion in arterioles, capillaries and venules, and hence poor oxygenation in tissues and organs.

The present review presents basic concepts of blood rheology related to vascular diseases. Blood flow in large arteries is dominated by inertial forces exhibited at high flow velocities, while viscous forces i. When high flow velocity is compromised by sudden deceleration as at a bifurcation, endothelial cell dysfunction can occur along the outer wall of the bifurcation, initiating inflammatory gene expression and, through mechanotransduction, the cascade of events associated with atherosclerosis. In sharp contrast, the flow of blood in microvessels is dominated by viscous shear forces since the inertial forces are negligible due to low flow velocities. Shear stress is a critical parameter in microvascular flow, and a force-balance approach is proposed for determining microvascular shear stress, accounting for the low Reynolds numbers and the dominance of viscous forces over inertial forces.

Hemorheology and Microvascular Disorders

Proper tissue perfusion can occur only when blood's rheological properties are within certain levels. Alterations of these properties play significant roles in disease processes. Red blood cells have unique mechanical behavior, which can be discussed under the terms erythrocyte deformability and erythrocyte aggregation. As such, the viscosity of blood varies with shear rate. Blood becomes less viscous at high shear rates like those experienced with increased flow such as during exercise or in peak- systole.

Significant progress has been made over the years on the topic of hemorheology, not only in terms of the development of more accurate and sophisticated techniques, but also in terms of understanding the phenomena associated with blood components, their interactions and impact upon blood properties. The rheological properties of blood are strongly dependent on the interactions and mechanical properties of red blood cells, and a variation of these properties can bring further insight into the human health state and can be an important parameter in clinical diagnosis. In this article, we provide both a reference for hemorheological research and a resource regarding the fundamental concepts in hemorheology. This review is aimed at those starting in the field of hemodynamics, where blood rheology plays a significant role, but also at those in search of the most up-to-date findings both qualitative and quantitative in hemorheological measurements and novel techniques used in this context, including technical advances under more extreme conditions such as in large amplitude oscillatory shear flow or under extensional flow, which impose large deformations comparable to those found in the microcirculatory system and in diseased vessels. Given the impressive rate of increase in the available knowledge on blood flow, this review is also intended to identify areas where current knowledge is still incomplete, and which have the potential for new, exciting and useful research. We also discuss the most important parameters that can lead to an alteration of blood rheology, and which as a consequence can have a significant impact on the normal physiological behavior of blood.

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Handbook of Hemorheology and Hemodynamics

This publication primarily focuses on the macro- and micro-rheological behavior of blood and its formed elements, on interactions between the formed elements and blood vessel walls, and on the microvascular aspects of hemodynamics. Since many aspects of hemorheology and hemodynamics are affected by disease or clinical states, these effects are discussed as are hyperviscosity syndromes, therapy for disturbed blood rheology, and methods in hemorheology and hemodynamics. Sections of the Handbook include History of Hemorheology; Hemorheology, covering basic aspects, blood composition, blood rheology, cell mechanics, pathophysiology, methods and comparative studies; Hemodynamics, covering basic principles, microcirculation, in vivo effects, endothelium and methods; and Clinical Aspects of Hemorheology, covering hyperviscosity, clinical significance and treatment.

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The flow properties of blood play significant roles in tissue perfusion by contributing to hydrodynamic resistance in blood vessels. These properties are influenced by pathophysiological processes, thereby increasing the clinical relevance of blood rheology information. There is well-established clinical evidence for impaired blood fluidity in humans of advanced age, including enhanced plasma and whole blood viscosity, impaired red blood cell RBC deformability and enhanced RBC aggregation. Increased plasma fibrinogen concentration is a common finding in many studies owing to the pro-inflammatory condition of aged individuals; this finding of increased fibrinogen concentration explains the higher plasma viscosity and RBC aggregation in elderly subjects.

A review of hemorheology: Measuring techniques and recent advances

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