Inductive And Deductive Research Methods Pdf

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Inductive and deductive approaches to research

Theories structure and inform sociological research. So, too, does research structure and inform theory. The reciprocal relationship between theory and research often becomes evident to students new to these topics when they consider the relationships between theory and research in inductive and deductive approaches to research. In both cases, theory is crucial. But the relationship between theory and research differs for each approach.

Inductive Approach (Inductive Reasoning)

If a causal relationship or link seems to be implied by a particular theory or case example, it might be true in many cases. Deductive approach can be explained by the means of hypotheses, which can be derived from the propositions of the theory. In other words, deductive approach is concerned with deducting conclusions from premises or propositions. Advantages of Deductive Approach Deductive approach offers the following advantages:. The table below guides the choice of specific approach depending on circumstances:. Deductive research approach explores a known theory or phenomenon and tests if that theory is valid in given circumstances.

Inductive approach, also known in inductive reasoning, starts with the observations and theories are proposed towards the end of the research process as a result of observations [1]. No theories or hypotheses would apply in inductive studies at the beginning of the research and the researcher is free in terms of altering the direction for the study after the research process had commenced. It is important to stress that inductive approach does not imply disregarding theories when formulating research questions and objectives. This approach aims to generate meanings from the data set collected in order to identify patterns and relationships to build a theory; however, inductive approach does not prevent the researcher from using existing theory to formulate the research question to be explored. Patterns, resemblances and regularities in experience premises are observed in order to reach conclusions or to generate theory. Application of Inductive Approach Inductive Reasoning in Business Research Inductive reasoning begins with detailed observations of the world, which moves towards more abstract generalisations and ideas [4].

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Inductive and deductive approaches to research

The main difference between inductive and deductive approaches to research is that whilst a deductive approach is aimed and testing theory, an inductive approach is concerned with the generation of new theory emerging from the data. A deductive approach usually begins with a hypothesis, whilst an inductive approach will usually use research questions to narrow the scope of the study. For deductive approaches the emphasis is generally on causality, whilst for inductive approaches the aim is usually focused on exploring new phenomena or looking at previously researched phenomena from a different perspective.

Theory structures and informs social work research. Conversely, social work research structures and informs theory. Students become aware of the reciprocal relationship between theory and research when they consider the relationships between the two in inductive and deductive approaches. In both cases, theory is crucial but the relationship between theory and research differs for each approach. Inductive and deductive approaches to research are quite different, but they can also be complementary.

Published on April 18, by Raimo Streefkerk. Revised on November 11, The main difference between inductive and deductive reasoning is that inductive reasoning aims at developing a theory while deductive reasoning aims at testing an existing theory. Inductive reasoning moves from specific observations to broad generalizations, and deductive reasoning the other way around.

In logic, we often refer to the two broad methods of reasoning as the deductive and inductive approaches.

6.3 Inductive and deductive reasoning

View Stats. But by using an inductive approach, students use their logic to understand concepts and summarize it. The research method applied in this study is a descriptive-comparative method with a triangulation analysis technique. Instruments used in the study were a questionnaire for the students, observation sheets, and three-tier diagnostic test items for pretest and posttest. The average pretest scores for deductive and inductive classes were While the average posttest scores for deductive and inductive classes were While the inductive approach was more effectively applied to the topic of Particle Kinetic theory.

Home Consumer Insights Market Research. Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. It involves inductive and deductive methods.

2: Inductive approach (Burney, ) The major differences between inductive and deductive approach can be distinguished as follows: Table Differences.

What is Research – Definition, Methods, Types & Examples

States that there are two general approaches to reasoning which may result in the acquisition of new knowledge: inductive reasoning commences with observation of specific instances, and seeks to establish generalisations; deductive reasoning commences with generalisations, and seeks to see if these generalisations apply to specific instances. Most often, qualitative research follows an inductive process. In most instances, however, theory developed from qualitative investigation is untested theory. Both quantitative and qualitative researchers demonstrate deductive and inductive processes in their research, but fail to recognise these processes.

Deduction & Induction

While hypotheses frame explanatory studies and provide guidance for measurement and statistical tests, deductive, exploratory research does not have a framing device like the hypothesis. To this purpose, this article examines the landscape of deductive, exploratory research and offers the working hypothesis as a flexible, useful framework that can guide and bring coherence across the steps in the research process. The working hypothesis conceptual framework is introduced, placed in a philosophical context, defined, and applied to public administration and comparative public policy. Doing so, this article explains: the philosophical underpinning of exploratory, deductive research; how the working hypothesis informs the methodologies and evidence collection of deductive, explorative research; the nature of micro-conceptual frameworks for deductive exploratory research; and, how the working hypothesis informs data analysis when exploratory research is deductive. Exploratory research is generally considered to be inductive and qualitative Stebbins

A feature of research designs are the approach to reasoning that they incorporate. There are various approaches that can be taken.